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Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana

  • 10 Aug 2022
  • 11 min read

For Prelims: Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana, Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme, Safeguards for STs, Government Initiatives

For Mains: Schemes for welfare for STs, Safeguards for STs, Government Initiatives

Why in News?

Recently, Government has modified the earlier scheme of ‘Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS)’ with nomenclature ‘Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAAGY)’ for implementation during 2021-22 to 2025-26.

What is Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojana?

  • About:
    • It supplements the efforts of State Governments for development and welfare of tribal people by extending Special Central Assistance as an additive to the State Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP).
    • It aims at mitigating gaps and providing basic infrastructure in villages with significant tribal population in convergence with funds available under different schemes in Central Scheduled Tribe Component.
  • Revision of Scheme Guidelines:
  • New Approach for Implementation:
    • The identification of needs or Gaps with regard to the ‘Monitorable Indicators’ are based on a Need Assessment exercise.
    • The ‘Village Development Plan’ (VDP) is based on the data collected as part of the Need Assessment exercise.
    • PMAGY provides the platform for convergent implementation of other Schemes with the aim to achieve saturation in the various domains.
  • Objectives:

What are the Basic Safeguards Provided by Indian Constitution for Scheduled Tribes?

  • The Constitution of India does not endeavor to define the term 'tribe', however, the term Scheduled Tribe' was inserted in the Constitution through Article 342 (i).
    • It lays down that 'the President may, by public notification, specify the tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within the tribes or tribal communities or parts which shall, for the purposes of this Constitution, be deemed to be Scheduled Tribes.
    • The Fifth Schedule of the Constitution provides for the setting up a Tribes’ Advisory Council in each of the States having Scheduled Areas.
  • Educational & Cultural Safeguards:
    • Article 15(4): Special provisions for advancement of other backward classes (it includes STs).
    • Article 29: Protection of Interests of Minorities (it includes STs).
    • Article 46: The State shall promote, with special care, the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes, and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
    • Article 350: Right to conserve distinct Language, Script or Culture.
  • Political Safeguards:
  • Administrative Safeguard:
    • Article 275: It provides for the grant of special funds by the Union Government to the State Government for promoting the welfare of Scheduled Tribes and providing them with a better administration.

What are some other Initiatives for Tribal Population?

  • Digital Transformation of Tribal Schools:
  • Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups:
    • Ministry of Tribal Affairs has implemented the scheme of “Development of PVTGs” which covers 75 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) for their comprehensive socio-economic development.
  • Pradhan Mantri Van Dhan Yojana:
    • The ‘Sankalp Se Siddhi’ initiative, also known as 'Mission Van Dhan', was introduced by the central government in 2021, in line with the Prime Minister's aim to establish a sustainable livelihood for India's tribal population.
  • Eklavya Model Residential Schools:
    • EMRS is a scheme for making model residential schools for Indian tribals (ST- Scheduled Tribes) across India. It started in the year 1997-98.
    • The Eklavya Model Residential School in Shinde (Nashik) has been planned by the Ministry Tribal Affairs to give impetus to quality education in nearby tribal areas.

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)


Q. With reference to India, the terms ‘HaIbi, Ho and Kui’ pertain to: (2021)

(a) dance forms of Northwest India
(b) musical instruments
(c) pre-historic cave paintings
(d) tribal languages

Ans: (d)


  • Odisha has a unique place in India due to its vast population of tribals residing in the state. 62 tribal communities live in Odisha which is 22.8% of the total population of Odisha.
  • Odisha’s tribal language is divided into 3 main language families. They are Austro-Asiatic (Munda), Dravida and Indo-Aryan. Every tribe has its own language and language family. The languages include:
    • Austro-Asiatic: Bhumij, Birhor, Rem (Bonda), Gatah (Didyai), Gutab (Gadaba), Sora(Saora), Gorum (Parenga), Khadia, Juang, Santali, Ho, Mundari, etc.
    • Dravida: Gondi, Kui-Kondh, Kuvi-Kondh, Kisan, Koya, Olari, (Gadaba) Parja, Peng, Kudukh (Oraon) etc.
    • Indo Aryan: Bathudi, Bhuyan, Kurmali, Sounti, Sadri, Kandhan, Aghria, Desia, Jharia, Halbi, Bhatri, Matia, Bhunjia, etc.
  • Out of these languages only 7 have scripts. They are Santali (Olchiki), Saora( Sorang Sampeng), Ho (Warangchiti), Kui (Kui Script), Oraon (Kukhud Tod), Mundari (Bani Hisir), Bhumij (Bhumij Anl). Santali language has been included in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.
  • Therefore, option (d) is the correct answer.

Q. Consider the following statements about Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India: (2019)

  1. PVTGs reside in 18 States and one Union Territory.
  2. A stagnant or declining population is one of the criteria for determining PVTG status.
  3. There are 95 PVTGs officially notified in the country so far.
  4. Irular and Konda Reddi tribes are included in the list of PVTGs.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 4
(d) 1, 3 and 4

Ans: (c)


  • In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who are less developed among the tribal groups. The Commission stated that more developed and assertive tribal groups take a major chunk of the tribal development funds, because of which PVTGs need more funds directed for their development. In this context, in 1975, the GoI initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called Primitive Vulnerable Tribal Groups.
  • 75 tribal groups have been categorized by Ministry of Home Affairs as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs). PVTGs reside in 18 States and the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Hence, statement 1 is correct and statement 3 is not correct.
  • The criteria followed for determination of PVTGs are a pre-agriculture level of technology, a stagnant or declining population, extremely low literacy, and a subsistence level of the economy. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • Irular (Tamil Nadu) and Konda Reddi (Andhra Pradesh) tribes are included in the list of PVTGs. Hence, statement 4 is correct.
  • Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer.


Q. What are the two major legal initiatives by the State since Independence addressing discrimination against Scheduled Tribes (STs)? (2017)

Source: PIB

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