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Global Sustainable Development Report, 2022

  • 10 Jun 2022
  • 8 min read

For Prelims: Global Sustainable Development Report, 2022, TERI, SDGs

For Mains: Environmental Pollution & Degradation, India’s SDG targets and its achievements

Why in News?

Recently, the global Sustainable Development Report, 2022 was released.

What is a Sustainable Development Report?

  • About:
    • It is a global assessment of countries' progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.
    • It is published by a group of independent experts at the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN).
      • SDSN was launched in 2012 to mobilize global scientific and technological expertise to promote practical problem solving for sustainable development and implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
      • Following their adoption, SDSN is now committed to supporting the implementation of the SDGs at national and international levels.
  • Ranking:
    • Countries are ranked by their overall score.
    • The overall score measures the total progress towards achieving all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)
    • The score can be interpreted as a percentage of SDG achievement.
    • A score of 100 indicates that all SDGs have been achieved.
  • Performance of the Countries:
    • The 2022 SDG Index is topped by Finland, followed by three Nordic countries –Denmark, Sweden and Norway.
    • East and South Asia is the region that progressed most on the SDGs since their adoption in 2015.
    • Bangladesh and Cambodia are the two countries that progressed most on the SDGs since 2015.
    • By contrast Venezuela has declined the most on the SDG Index since their adoption in 2015.

What are the key Highlights of the Report?

  • About World:
    • Multiple and simultaneous health, climate, biodiversity, geopolitical and military crises are major setbacks for sustainable development globally.
    • The SDG Index world average has slightly decreased in 2021 for the second year in a row, largely due to the impact of the pandemic on SDG1 (No Poverty) and SDG8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth) and poor performance on SDG11-15 (climate, biodiversity, and sustainable urban development goals).
    • Besides their massive humanitarian costs, military conflicts – including the war in Ukraine – have major international spill overs on food security and energy prices, which are amplified by the climate and biodiversity crises.
  • About India:
    • India’s Preparedness Worsened:
    • Major Challenges:
      • The country continues to face major challenges in achieving 11 of the 17 SDGs, which has pushed down its global ranking on SDG preparedness.
      • Ensuring decent work (SDG 8) has become more challenging.
      • According to the report, India is on track to achieving SDG 13 on climate action.
        • However, The State of India’s Environment, 2022 flagged that the country was facing major challenges in this area.
          • India’s performance on climate action — (SDG) 13 — has slipped from 2019-2020.
          • This decline in India’s overall performance is primarily due to eight states — Bihar, Telangana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Jharkhand — whose scores have dipped under SDG 13 in the two years.
    • Progress Made:
      • The progress in around 10 of these goals is similar to those in 2021.
        • These include SDG 2 on ending hunger, SDG 3 on good health and well being and SDG 6 on clean water and sanitation.

What are the Recommendations?

  • New partnerships and innovations should be Scaled-up:
    • New partnerships and innovations that emerged during the Covid-19 pandemic, including in scientific cooperation and data, should be scaled-up to support the SDGs.
  • Science and Technological Innovations:
    • Science, technological innovations, and data systems can help identify solutions in times of crises and can provide decisive contributions to address the major challenges of our times.
    • These call for increased and prolonged investments in statistical capacities, Research & Development and education and skills.
  • Increasing Investment:
    • Achieving the SDGs is fundamentally an investment agenda in physical infrastructure (including renewable energy, digital technologies) and human capital (including health, education).
      • Yet the poorest half of the world lacks market access to capital on acceptable terms.
      • Poor and vulnerable countries have been hit hard by the multiple crises and their spill overs.

What are Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)?

  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity.
  • The 17 SDGs are integrated—they recognize that action in one area will affect outcomes in others, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.
  • Countries have committed to prioritize progress for those who're furthest behind. The SDGs are designed to end poverty, hunger, Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and discrimination against women and girls.

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Question

Q. Consider the following statements: (2016)

  1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’.
  2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (b)

  • The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, are a universal call for action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.
  • They are built upon the success of the Millennium Development Goals, including new areas such as climate change, economic inequality, innovation, sustainable consumption, peace and justice, among other priorities.
  • The goals are interconnected – often the key to success on one will involve tackling issues more commonly associated with another.
  • Adopted in 2015, SDGs came into effect in January 2016. They are meant to be achieved by 2030. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
  • The SDGs were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. The Club of Rome advocated resource conservation for the first time in a more systematic way in 1968. Hence, statement 1 is not correct. Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.

Source: DTE

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