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Spread of Covid Infection in Vulnerable Tribal Groups

  • 15 May 2021
  • 3 min read

Why in News

Many members of eight different Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) got infected in the second wave of Covid-19 in Odisha.

Key Points

  • Tribal Groups in Odisha:
    • According to the 2011 Census, Odisha’s share of the country’s total tribal population was 9%.
    • The Tribals constitute 22.85% of the State's population.
    • In terms of numbers of its tribal population, Odisha occupies the third position in India.
    • Of the 62 tribal groups residing in Odisha, 13 are recognised as PVTGs.
      • The 13 PVTGs in Odisha are: Bonda, Birhor, Chuktia Bhunjia, Didayi, Dungaria Kandha, Hill Kharia, Juang, Kutia Kondh, Lanjia Saora, Lodha, Mankirdia, Paudi Bhuyan and Saora.
    • Tribal populations are found in the entire seven districts of Kandhamal, Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh, Nabarangpur, Koraput, Malkangiri and Rayagada, and in parts of 6 other districts.
  • Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs):
    • Creation of Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs): In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, which are less developed among the tribal groups.
    • In 2006, the Government of India renamed the PTGs as PVTGs.
      • In 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups. In 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes.
      • Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha.
    • Characteristics of PVTGs: The Government classifies PVTGs on their:
      • Relative physical isolation,
      • Stagnant or declining population,
      • Low levels of literacy,
      • Absence of written language,
      • Pre-agricultural stage of economy, such as hunting, food gathering, shifting cultivation and terrace cultivation.
    • Schemes for PVTGs: PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups. Due to this factor, more developed and assertive tribal groups take a major chunk of the tribal development funds because of which PVTGs need more funds directed for their development.
      • The Ministry of Tribal Affairs has implemented the scheme of “Development of PVTGs” which covers 75 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) for their comprehensive socio-economic development.
        • Under the scheme, State Governments submit Conservation-cum-Development (CCD) plans on the basis of their requirement.
        • 100% grants-in-aid are made available to States as per the provisions of the scheme.

Source: TH

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