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Jal Jeevan Mission

  • 12 Jun 2023
  • 5 min read

For Prelims: Jal Jeevan Mission, WHO, Diarrhoea, Disability Adjusted Life Years, SHG, SDG-6.

For Mains: Jal Jeevan Mission, its Significance and Performance so far.

Why in News?

Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) in its study, it highlighted the potential impact of the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) including significant health and socio-economic benefits.

What are the Key Highlights of the Study?

  • Averting Deaths from Diarrhoea:
    • JJM has the potential to avert close to 4 lakh deaths from Diarrhoea. This highlights the life-saving impact of providing piped potable water to all households in India.
  • Avoidance of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs):
    • JJM can help avoid approximately 14 million DALYs associated with diarrhoea and save around USD 101 billion and 66.6 million hours every day of time that would otherwise have been spent — predominantly by women — collecting water.
      • A DALY represents the loss of the equivalent of one year of full health and are a way to account for the years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) and the years lived with a disability (YLDs), due to prevalent cases of a disease or a health condition, in a population.
  • Gender Equality:
    • The availability of piped water can contribute to gender equality by reducing the burden of water collection on women and providing them with more opportunities for education and employment.

What is the Jal Jeevan Mission?

  • About:
    • Launched in 2019, it envisages supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTC) by 2024.
    • JJM looks to create a jan andolan for water, thereby making it everyone’s priority.
    • It comes under Jal Shakti Ministry.
  • Aims:
    • The mission ensures functionality of existing water supply systems and water connections, water quality monitoring and testing as well as sustainable agriculture.
    • It also ensures conjunctive use of conserved water; drinking water source augmentation, drinking water supply system, grey water treatment and its reuse.
  • Features:
    • JJM focuses on integrated demand and supply-side management of water at the local level.
    • Creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability measures as mandatory elements, like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household wastewater for reuse, is undertaken in convergence with other government programmes/schemes.
    • The Mission is based on a community approach to water and includes extensive Information, Education and Communication as a key component of the mission.
  • Implementation:
    • Paani Samitis plan, implement, manage, operate and maintain village water supply systems.
    • The committees prepare a one-time village action plan, merging all available village resources. The plan is approved in a Gram Sabha before implementation.
  • Funding Pattern:
    • The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and states is 90:10 for Himalayan and North-Eastern States, 50:50 for other states, and 100% for Union Territories.

What has JJM's Performance Been?

  • Currently about 12.3 crore (62%) rural households have piped water connections up from 3.2 crore (16.6%) from 2019.
  • Five states viz; Gujarat, Telangana, Goa, Haryana, and Punjab and 3 Union Territories — Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Daman Diu & Dadra Nagar Haveli and Puducherry have reported 100% coverage.
  • Himachal Pradesh at 98.87%, followed by Bihar at 96.30%, are also poised to achieve saturation in near future.

What is the Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban)?

  • In the Budget 2021-22, Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban) was announced under the MInistry of Housing of Urban Affairs to provide universal coverage of water supply to all households through functional taps in all statutory towns in accordance with Sustainable Development Goal- 6.
  • It complements the Jal Jeevan Mission (Rural) which envisages supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTC) by 2024.
  • Objectives of Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban):
    • Securing tap and sewer connections.
    • Rejuvenation of water bodies.
    • Creating circular water economy.

UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ)

Q. What is water stress? How and why does it differ regionally in India? (2019)

Source: TH

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