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Governance

Year End Review 2019: Ministry of Rural Development

  • 05 May 2020
  • 9 min read

Important Schemes and Policies

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)

  • SECURE (Software for Estimate Calculation Using Rural Rates for Employment) under MGNREGS has helped in creating a transparent system for according administrative approval and technical sanction. Now, field functionaries can track, remove obstacles and speed up whole process of workflow.
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members (at least 18 years of age) volunteer to do unskilled work.
    • The central government bears the full cost of unskilled labour, and 75% of the cost of material (the rest is borne by the states).
    • It is a demand-driven, social security and labour law that aims to enforce the ‘right to work’.
    • Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Government of India in association with state governments, monitors the implementation of the scheme.
    • Agriculture and allied activities constitute more than 65% of the works taken up under the programme.

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana

  • It was launched in December 2000, for providing connectivity through a single all weather road to the eligible unconnected habitations as per core-network with a population of 500 persons in plain areas, and 250 persons & above in states with difficult terrain, desert areas, tribal & backward districts.
  • The programme also provides for upgradation of the existing 'Through Routes' and ‘Major Rural Links’ (MRL).
  • E-marg software for maintenance of roads has been developed and is being rolled out in all States.

Background: Ministry of Rural Development

  • The vision and mission of the Ministry is sustainable and inclusive growth of rural India through a multipronged strategy for eradication of poverty by increasing livelihoods opportunities, providing social safety net and developing infrastructure for growth.
  • The Ministry of Rural Development consists of two Department:
    • Department of Rural Development
    • Department of Land Resources
  • In October 1974, the Department of Rural Development came into existence as a part of Ministry of Food and Agriculture.
  • In August 1979, the Department of Rural Development was elevated to the status of a new Ministry of Rural Reconstruction. It was renamed as Ministry of Rural Development in January 1982.
  • In January 1985, the Ministry of Rural Development was again converted into a Department under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development which was later rechristened as Ministry of Agriculture in September 1985.
  • In 1991 the Department was upgraded as Ministry of Rural Development. Another Department viz. Department of Wasteland Development was created under this Ministry.
  • In March 1995, the Ministry was renamed as the Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment with three departments namely Department of Rural Employment and Poverty Alleviation, Rural Development and Wasteland Development.
  • Again, in 1999 Ministry of Rural Areas and Employment was renamed as Ministry of Rural Development.
  • This Ministry has been acting as a catalyst effecting the change in rural areas through the implementation of wide spectrum of programmes which are aimed at poverty alleviation, employment generation, infrastructure development and social security.

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM)

  • Launched in 2011, DAY-NRLM aims at mobilizing rural poor households into Self Help Groups (SHGs) in a phased manner and provide them long-term support such that they diversify their livelihoods, improve their incomes and quality of life.
  • Major components:
    • Promotion of sustainable institutions of the poor
    • Ensuring access to financial services
    • Promote diversified livelihoods opportunities for the poor, in farm and non- farm sectors.
    • Promotion of skill development and access to jobs
    • Promotion of social inclusion, social development and human development
  • All “automatically included” households and all households with “at least one deprivation” as per the Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data constitute the target group of DAY-NRLM.
  • The list of the rural poor is also validated by Participatory Identification of the Poor (PIP) which is further vetted by the Gram Sabha.

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana – Gramin (PMAY-G)

  • In the context of Government’s priority for “Housing for All” by 2022, the erstwhile rural housing scheme has been restructured into PMAY-G, which came into effect from 1st April, 2016.
  • PMAY-G aims to provide a pucca house with basic amenities to all houseless households and households living in kutcha and dilapidated house by 2022.
  • PMAY-G enables construction of quality houses by the beneficiaries using local materials, designs and trained masons.

Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana

  • Lunched in 2011, it is a placement linked skill development program for wage employment.
  • Skill development through Rural Self Employment and Training Institutes (RSETIs) enables a trainee to take bank credit and start his/her own Micro-enterprise. Some such trainees may also seek regular salaried jobs.
  • At present, RSETIs offer training in 61 vocations classified under four major areas viz. agriculture, processing, product manufacture and general entrepreneurship development programme.

National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)

  • Launched in 1995, National social assistance programme (NSAP) is targeted at any such person who has little or no regular means of subsistence from his/her own source of income or financial support from family members or other sources, to be identified by States/UTs.
  • At present NSAP includes five sub-schemes as its components –
    • Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme
    • Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme
    • Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme IGNDPS
    • National Family Benefit Scheme
    • Annuparna

Note:

Article 41 of the Constitution of India directs the State to provide public assistance to its citizens in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement and in other cases of undeserved want within the limit of its economic capacity and development.

Shyama Prasad Mukherjee RURBAN Mission (SPMRM)

  • SPMRM is focused on comprehensive development of 300 clusters spread across the country.
  • These clusters are identified in rural regions displaying potential for economic growth through the presence of thematic livelihood activities, increasing population and non-farm employment.
  • The Mission is being implemented with an aim to transform these clusters by focusing on developing skills, strengthening economic activities and provision of crucial basic infrastructure amenities in an equitable and time-bound manner.

Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY)

  • It was launched in 2014, with the objective of creating ‘Adarsh Grams’ across the country.
  • In its first phase (2014-19), the scheme called upon the Members of Parliament (MPs) to make one Gram Panchayat of their choice, a Model Village by 2016, and another two by 2019.
  • From 2019, under the second phase of the scheme, 2014-19 each Member of Parliament during his/her tenure may develop five model villages (one per year) in his/her area till 2024.
  • The Gram Panchayats under the guidance of MPs, follow a structured process of environment creation, social mobilisation, resource mapping and participatory development planning.
    • They prepare Village Development Plans (VDP) containing prioritised time-bound projects to achieve holistic progress of the village, through the convergence of resources.
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