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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Discuss the schism between the developed and developing world in climate change negotiations and coming up with a collective global action.

    24 Mar, 2021 GS Paper 3 Bio-diversity & Environment

    Approach

    • Start the answer by briefly discussing the context of growing Greenhouse gases emission.
    • Discuss the various reasons for conflict between developed and developing countries.
    • Conclude Suitably.

    Introduction

    According to the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), the intended nationally determined contributions announced by major economies of the world are radically insufficient to reach the well below 2 degrees Celsius limit.

    One of the reasons for this failure can be attributed to a lack of consensus between developed and developing countries on various issues.

    Body

    Conflict Between Developed and Developing Countries

    • Conflict over CBDR: The developed countries are of the view that economic growth is being witnessed by developing nations like India and China. Thus the principle of CBDR has somehow become outdated.
      • On the other hand, the developing countries argue that, though economic growth has taken place, global inequality remains quite high. Therefore, CBDR ensures their right to development.
    • Conflict over Climate Mitigation Financing: In the matter of finance for climate action, the Copenhagen pledge (2009) by the developed countries of mobilizing $100 billion annually by 2020. However, the total financial support that has been mobilized by 2016, amounted to $37.5 billion only.
    • Conflict over Article 6 of the Paris Deal: Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which refers to carbon trading, has been not finalized yet.
      • Developed countries insist on the adoption of this article, as it places no bar on countries upscaling their efforts at a drastic reduction in emissions through independent domestic action.
      • However, other developing countries fear that the article may allow the developed countries to restrict advanced technology to developing countries.

    Conclusion

    As the earth is only home to human civilization, the challenge of climate change should only be met through global collective action based on equity, driven by a clear commitment to multilateralism by all nations.

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