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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. To what extent the social welfare measures adopted by Government of India in insurgency hit region has bore the desired fruits? (150 words)

    12 Jan, 2019 GS Paper 3 Internal Security


    • Briefly describe GOI approach to deal with insurgency.
    • Give the social welfare measures adopted by Government.
    • Suggestion/Way Forward.



    • India is facing insurgency in number of states for various socio-political reasons. Two major regions are states influenced by Left wing Extremism in Central India and Insurgency in North eastern states aimed at greater autonomy or outright secession.
    • The Government’s approach to deal with insurgency has been two pronged , in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights and entitlements of local communities, improvement in governance, public perception management and also managing of law and order situation.

    Social Welfare measures adopted by Government

    • Holistic Development:  The Ministry of Home Affairs has been tasked with the monitoring of Aspirational districts programme in 35 LWE affected districts.
    • Skill development and education are critical challenges in insurgency areas Government is running several schemes to impart local population education and skills so as to boost the socio economic status of local people.


    • Development in insurgency areas is directly linked to connectivity. The economic activities and other socio economic activities require good road infrastructure e.g. access to health and education for remote areas depend upon good road infrastructure. Government implementing this for improving road connectivity in 44 districts of 9 LWE affected States.
    • To fill critical gaps in Public infrastructure and Services e.g. medical facilities in form of primary health centres , primary and secondary schools; Government has started Special Central Assistance (SCA) for 30 most LWE affected districts
    • Physical infrastructure relating to water supply, power and connectivity enhancing tourism and Social infrastructure relating to primary and secondary sectors of education and health are crucial for reducing insurgency. Government has introduced North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme (NESIDS) a 100% centrally funding scheme for this purpose.

    Trust Building

    • Civic activities by Central Police Forces (CPF): For building trust and effectively bringing  out the human face of forces and local people, CPF conducts various civic activities in the welfare of the local people e.g. Civic Action Programme (CAP).
    • For North eastern states, Government is taking all possible steps to address the genuine demands of various ethnic groups for development and for autonomy in managing their affairs which is at root of insurgency in these areas.
    • Rehabilitation is important to bring out former rebels in to mainstream and weakening the insurgency. The Issues relating to rehabilitation of people affected by militancy, bringing underground outfits to the mainstream through negotiations, confidence-building measures etc. are also actively pursued by Government of India.
    • 10% of the Annual Plan Budget of 52 Ministries of the Union Government is earmarked every year for spending in North Eastern region since 1998-99 to ensure dedicated and focussed implementation of development reports.

    Way Forward

    • Of the various security challenges India is facing, insurgency in both these areas remains the most dangerous to security of India. Thus there is need to tackle this challenge from security as well as development perspective.
    • There is need to enhance the Implementation capacity of these states, merely allocating central funds will not resolve the developmental issues of these areas.
    • A focussed programme like ‘Transformation of Aspirational Districts programme’ under the monitoring of NITI Aayog may be launched. Similar approaches like convergence, collaboration and competition can be used to spur development in these areas.

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