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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Geopolitical and Socio-Economic dimensions across the globe are undergoing changes which call for United Nations Security Council (UNSC) reforms pending since its coming into existence. Elucidate (250 words)

    17 Oct, 2023 GS Paper 2 International Relations


    • Begin by providing a brief overview of the United Nations Security Council.
    • Describe how geopolitical and socio-economic shifts in the past few decades call for UNSC reforms.
    • You can conclude by summarizing the key factors in the UNSC reforms and its relevance in the present context.


    The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) stands as a central institution in the global geopolitical landscape, tasked with the critical responsibility of maintaining international peace and security. However, the structure and composition of the UNSC have remained largely unchanged since its inception, and this has become increasingly inadequate in addressing the complex challenges of the modern world. While the UNSC was designed to reflect the post-World War II world, the current geopolitical and socio-economic dimensions are markedly different.


    Changing Geopolitical Dynamics:

    • Post-World War II Structure: The UNSC was established in the aftermath of World War II, and its composition reflects the power dynamics of that era, with the P5 (permanent members) - the United States, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom - holding veto powers. The world today is vastly different from the bipolar power structure of that time.
    • Emergence of New Powers: Rising powers such as India, Brazil, South Africa, and Germany, often referred to as the G4, have assumed significant roles in global affairs. These countries have economic, political, and military influence, yet they remain excluded from the permanent membership of the UNSC.
    • Shift in Economic Centers: The global economic landscape has shifted, with emerging economies gaining prominence. India and China, in particular, have witnessed rapid economic growth and are now among the world's largest economies. This shift warrants a more inclusive representation in global governance.
    • Changing Alliances and Conflicts: The emergence of new security threats, non-state actors, and changes in alliances and conflicts underscore the need for a more adaptable and representative UNSC to effectively address these challenges.

    Changing Socio-Economic Dimensions:

    • Globalization: The process of globalization has made the world more interconnected than ever before. Economic and social issues transcend borders, requiring comprehensive and coordinated global responses.
    • Climate Change: Climate change has emerged as one of the most pressing global issues. Its implications go beyond environmental concerns and impact peace and security, making it a topic that demands UNSC attention.
    • Pandemics and Health Security: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for global cooperation in addressing health crises. Health security has become a vital aspect of global security and requires the UNSC's engagement.
    • Human Rights and Humanitarian Crises: Increasing instances of human rights abuses and humanitarian crises demand the UNSC's intervention. A reformed UNSC should better represent diverse perspectives on these issues. Recent Examples are UNSC’s failure to curb human rights violations in Myanmar’s Junta government and Sudan in Africa etc.

    Need for UNSC Reforms:

    • For Inclusivity and Legitimacy: The current composition of the UNSC is seen as undemocratic and lacking legitimacy. Reforms should aim to include more countries that reflect the contemporary global balance of power.The P5 nations, particularly Russia and China, have consistently resisted any reforms that might dilute their veto powers. This has been a major impediment to progress in reform discussions.
    • For Equitable Representation: The G4 nations, along with several others, have argued for their inclusion as permanent members. They advocate for a more democratic representation that reflects the world's changing power dynamics.
    • For Enhanced Effectiveness: A reformed UNSC should be more effective in addressing contemporary security challenges. Expanding its membership and eliminating the veto power could foster a more cooperative and responsive body.Reaching a consensus on reforms among the 193 member states is a complex and challenging process, as each country has its own set of priorities and demands.
    • For Global Governance: Addressing global governance issues such as climate change, health crises, and humanitarian issues necessitates a reformed UNSC that can play a role in setting global governance standards.The historical context of the UNSC's formation, centered on the aftermath of World War II, has created resistance to changes from certain quarters.

    India's Perspective:

    • Permanent Membership: India has consistently pushed for permanent membership in the UNSC. It argues that as the world's largest democracy and one of the fastest-growing economies, it has a rightful claim to permanent membership, reflecting its global influence.
    • Peacekeeping Contributions: India has been one of the largest contributors to UN peacekeeping missions, demonstrating its commitment to global peace and security. This, in India's view, underscores its suitability for permanent membership.
    • Regional Stature: India plays a crucial role in South Asia and has a substantial influence in the broader Asian region. A permanent seat in the UNSC would better reflect this regional stature.
    • Multilateral Diplomacy: India's tradition of non-alignment and commitment to multilateral diplomacy aligns with its goal of UNSC reforms that emphasize the importance of cooperation and collective decision-making.
    • Veto Power: India, along with other countries, advocates for limiting or phasing out the veto power. The veto, in its current form, has often been an impediment to the UNSC's effectiveness.


    The geopolitical and socio-economic dimensions across the globe are indeed undergoing profound changes. These shifts demand a reevaluation of global governance structures like the UNSC, which, despite its vital role, is in need of reform to better reflect the contemporary world. The persistence of obstacles, primarily the resistance of the P5 nations, has hindered the reform process. However, with the recognition of the pressing need for change and the advocacy of emerging powers like India, it is essential that the international community continues its efforts to ensure a more representative and effective UNSC.

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