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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Genetically Modified (GM) food is the best way for sustainable food production. Critically examine. (250 words)

    05 Jul, 2023 GS Paper 3 Science & Technology


    • Introduction: Start your answer with a brief overview of GM foods
    • Body: Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the GM Foods
    • Conclusion: Conclude the answer with a way forward approach


    Genetically modified (GM) food refers to any food item that has been made using genetic engineering techniques. GM food has been a subject of intense debate and controversy regarding its role in sustainable food production. GM food can potentially contribute to sustainable food production by increasing crop yields, reducing input costs, enhancing food security, and mitigating climate change. However, GM food also faces several challenges and risks, such as ethical concerns, environmental impacts, health effects, and socio-economic implications.


    Advantages of GM Food:

    • Increased Yield: GM crops are designed to have increased resistance to pests, diseases, and harsh environmental conditions. This can result in higher crop yields and productivity.
    • Added nutrients: GM foods can be modified to have higher levels of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, or other beneficial compounds. For example, golden rice is enriched with beta-carotene, which can prevent vitamin A deficiency.
    • Reduced Dependence on Pesticides: GM foods can be engineered to resist pests, diseases, and herbicides, which can reduce the need for chemical inputs and lower the environmental impact of agriculture.
    • Cheaper prices: GM foods can lower the production costs for farmers and increase the crop yields, which can lead to lower prices for consumers and more food security for the world.
    • Increased attractiveness to consumers: GM foods can have improved traits such as longer shelf life, less bruising, enhanced flavor, or more appealing appearance, which can increase the demand and satisfaction of consumers.
    • Greater tolerance to harsh conditions: GM foods can be modified to withstand drought, heat, salinity, or other environmental stresses that may limit the growth of conventional crops. This can expand the range of cultivation and adapt to climate change.

    Disadvantages of GM Food:

    • Antibiotic resistance: Some GM foods may contain antibiotic resistance genes that are used as markers during the genetic engineering process. These genes may transfer to the bacteria in the human gut and make them resistant to antibiotics, which can pose a serious health risk.
    • Environmental risks: GM foods may have negative impacts on the environment, such as creating superweeds that are resistant to herbicides, reducing biodiversity, harming beneficial insects and other species, and contaminating non-GM crops through gene flow.
    • DNA alteration: Some studies have suggested that GM foods may increase the risk of cancer in humans by altering the DNA structure, producing toxins, or disrupting hormone levels. 
      • However, these studies are not conclusive, and more research is needed to confirm or refute this claim.
    • Economic Dependence: GM crops are often patented, leading to farmer dependency on multinational corporations for seeds and technology, increasing costs and reducing control.
    • Contamination and Loss of Diversity: Cross-pollination can occur between GM and non-GM crops, leading to unintended contamination and loss of traditional varieties, affecting farmers' livelihoods and agricultural diversity.
    • Ethical and Safety Concerns: Long-term effects of consuming GM food on human health are not fully understood, necessitating further research on potential risks, including allergenicity and antibiotic resistance.
    • Public Perception and Acceptance: GM food has faced public scepticism and resistance due to concerns about safety, transparency, and the influence of corporate interests.


    While GM food holds potential benefits for sustainable food production, it is crucial to examine its implications. A balanced approach is necessary, focusing on rigorous scientific research, transparent regulations, and public participation. Alternative approaches, such as organic farming, agroecology, and traditional breeding methods, should also be explored to ensure a holistic and sustainable approach to food production that respects biodiversity, local knowledge, and human health.

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