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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. What is the role of civil society and local communities in countering radicalization and violent extremism? Discuss the challenges and opportunities in engaging with them for internal security. (250 words)

    14 Jun, 2023 GS Paper 3 Internal Security


    • Introduction: Define radicalization and violent extremism, and their impact on internal security and brief role of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) in countering them.
    • Body: Discuss how CSOs can be crucial in countering such menaces and what are the challenges and opportunities related to the engagement with the CSOs
    • Conclusion: Conclude with a way forward approach


    Radicalization is the process of adopting extremist views and engaging in violent actions against the state or society. Violent extremism is the use of violence or threat of violence to achieve political, ideological, or religious goals. Both radicalization and violent extremism pose a serious threat to internal security as they undermine the democratic values, social harmony, and national integrity of the country.

    The role of civil society and local communities in countering radicalization and violent extremism is crucial for promoting internal security. Their engagement offers unique opportunities to address the root causes of radicalization, build resilience, and foster social cohesion.


    Civil society and local communities play a vital role in countering radicalization by:

    • Providing alternative narratives and positive role models to counter extremist propaganda and recruitment by using various platforms, such as media, education, arts, sports, etc., to promote peace, tolerance, and diversity among different groups and sectors of society.
      • They can also highlight the voices and stories of victims and survivors of violent extremism to create empathy and awareness.
    • Addressing root causes of radicalization includes advocating for social justice, inclusive development, and good governance. CSOs can provide basic services, livelihood opportunities, and empowerment programs to vulnerable groups to enhance their resilience and sense of belonging.
    • CSOs can promote social cohesion, tolerance, dialogue, and non-violence among diverse communities by facilitating interfaith, intercultural, and intergenerational dialogues. They can also mobilize grassroots support for peacebuilding initiatives and conflict resolution mechanisms.
    • CSOs can empower vulnerable groups to participate in decision-making and peacebuilding by enhancing their capacities and leadership skills, creating networks and platforms for collaboration, and amplifying their impact.
    • Providing psychosocial support, rehabilitation, and reintegration services to former extremists and their families.
    • CSOs can provide counselling, mentoring, education, vocational training, and more to help individuals renounce violence and reintegrate into society. They can also collaborate with the government and other stakeholders to protect human rights.

    However, engaging with civil society and local communities for internal security also faces some challenges and opportunities, such as:

    • Challenges:
      • Lack of trust, coordination, and communication between government and civil society
      • Insufficient funding, capacity, and protection for civil society actors
      • Legal and political constraints
      • Risk of stigmatization or backlash from extremist groups or communities.
    • Opportunities:
      • Enhancing the legitimacy, effectiveness, and sustainability of Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism (P/CVE) efforts
      • Leveraging the local knowledge, networks, and influence of civil society actors
      • Fostering a whole-of-society approach that involves multiple stakeholders
      • Creating platforms for dialogue, collaboration, and learning among different actors.


    Civil society and local communities are crucial in countering radicalization and violent extremism. They require support and recognition from the government and other stakeholders. Strengthening their engagement requires regular consultations, adequate funding, capacity building, protection, enabling legal and political environment, multi-stakeholder partnerships, and recognizing contributions.

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