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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. The Indian Space Sector has been globally recognized for building cost-effective satellites, and now India is even taking foreign satellites to space. In this light discuss the significance of New Space Policy and challenges associated with it. Also, suggest measures to harness the full potential of space sector. (250 words)

    07 Jun, 2023 GS Paper 3 Science & Technology


    • Introduction: Briefly introduce the Indian Space Sector and mention India's recent endeavours.
    • Body: Discuss the significance and key features of the New Space Policy, challenges and suggest measures to harness the full potential of space sector.
    • Conclusion: Conclude with a forward-looking statement on the future prospects of the Indian space program.


    The Indian space sector has achieved remarkable feats: launching over 300 satellites, missions to the Moon and Mars, indigenous technology development, and experimental flights. The vision is to use space technology for national development and regional cooperation. To adapt to emerging technologies and challenges, India needs a new policy framework. It should encourage private sector participation, foster innovation, ensure security and sustainability, and promote international cooperation.

    Significance of New Space Policy

    The New Space Policy (NSP) 2023 promotes private sector involvement, investment, and collaboration in the space sector. It enhances competitiveness and efficiency by defining roles and responsibilities of stakeholders like ISRO, NSIL, and IN-SPACe.

    Some of the key features and benefits of the NSP are:

    • It allows non-government entities (NGEs) to undertake end-to-end space activities, such as building rockets, satellites and launch vehicles.
    • It establishes IN-SPACe as a single-window nodal agency for authorizing and regulating NGEs' space activities.
    • It empowers New Space India Limited (NSIL) as the commercial arm of ISRO to undertake production and marketing of space products and services developed by ISRO.
    • It enables ISRO to focus more on research and development of advanced space technologies, exploration missions and other non-commercial activities.
    • It promotes a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in the space sector by creating opportunities for NGEs to develop new products, services and solutions.
    • It enhances India's strategic interests and capabilities in space by ensuring security and sustainability of its space assets and activities.

    Challenges associated with New Space Policy:

    • Creating a robust regulatory framework is essential to balance stakeholder interests, ensure compliance with laws and norms, prevent misuse of space resources, and resolve conflicts.
    • Developing a skilled workforce that can meet the growing demand for talent and expertise in the space sector.
    • Ensuring adequate funding and financing for NGEs' space activities.
    • Fostering a conducive ecosystem that can support NGEs' growth and innovation.
    • Addressing the emerging threats and challenges in the space domain, such as space debris, congestion, competition, militarization and weaponization.

    Measures to harness the full potential of space sector:

    • Enacting a comprehensive space law that can provide a legal basis for the NSP and its implementation. The space law should also define the rights and obligations of NGEs, ISRO, NSIL, IN-SPACe and other stakeholders, as well as the mechanisms for enforcement, adjudication and redressal.
    • Establishing a national space council or commission comprising representatives from various ministries, departments and other stakeholders that can provide strategic direction, coordination and oversight for India's space program.
    • Enhancing effectiveness and efficiency, ISRO, NSIL, and IN-SPACe need strengthened capacity and capability. This entails bolstering human, financial, and technical resources, along with organizational structures and processes.
    • Establish transparent and equitable procedures to assess, monitor, and support NGEs' participation in national and international initiatives.
    • Promoting a culture of excellence, innovation and entrepreneurship in the space sector by rewarding the achievements of NGEs, ISRO, NSIL, IN-SPACe and other stakeholders. This requires creating platforms and forums for showcasing, celebrating and disseminating best practices.


    The NSP 2023 is a visionary document that can usher in a new era of space development in India. It can enable India to leverage its strengths and opportunities in the space sector for achieving its national goals and aspirations. However, the success of the NSP depends on its effective implementation and constant review. Therefore, it is imperative that all the stakeholders work together to overcome the challenges and realize the potential of the NSP.

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