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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. What is the 30*30 initiative and what are its implications for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation? Discuss the challenges and opportunities for India in achieving this target. (250 words)

    31 May, 2023 GS Paper 3 Bio-diversity & Environment


    • Introduction: Introduce the 30*30 initiative and its main objective.
    • Body: Explain the implications of the initiative for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation and discuss the challenges and opportunities for India in achieving this target.
    • Conclusion: Conclude with a summary of the main points and a positive note.


    The 30×30 target implies protection of at least 30 % the of world’s land and ocean by 2030. The 30×30 target is a global target that aims to halt the accelerating loss of species and protect vital ecosystems that are the source of our economic security.

    The initiative has been endorsed by more than 100 countries, including the European Union, the G7, and India, and has become a target of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework adopted in December 2022.


    The initiative has significant implications for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. It also supports the achievement of other global goals, such as the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement on climate change. According to a study by McKinsey & Company, achieving the 30*30 target could generate up to $700 billion per year in economic benefits by 2050.

    However, the initiative also faces several challenges and opportunities for India in achieving this target.

    Some of the challenges include:

    • Balancing the trade-offs between conservation and development, especially in areas with high population density, poverty, and resource dependence.
    • Ensuring equitable and inclusive governance of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, respecting the rights and interests of indigenous peoples and local communities.
    • Mobilizing adequate financial and technical resources for implementing and monitoring the target, as well as addressing the opportunity costs and compensation needs of affected stakeholders.
    • Enhancing coordination and cooperation among various ministries, departments, agencies, states, and sectors involved in conservation planning and management.
    • Strengthening the scientific basis and data availability for identifying and prioritizing areas of high biodiversity and climate value.

    Some of the opportunities include:

    • Building on India's existing achievements and commitments in biodiversity conservation, and its voluntary pledge to restore 26 million hectares of degraded land by 2030.
    • Leveraging India's rich cultural and religious traditions that value nature and promote conservation ethics among its diverse population.
    • Harnessing India's technological innovation and leadership in fields such as renewable energy, biotechnology, space research, and information technology to support conservation efforts.
    • Engaging with various stakeholders, such as civil society organizations, private sector entities, academic institutions, media outlets, and youth groups to raise awareness and mobilize action for the 30*30 initiative.
    • Collaborating with other countries, especially those in South Asia and the Indian Ocean region, to share best practices and address transboundary conservation issues.


    The 30*30 initiative is a bold and ambitious global effort to protect nature and life on Earth. It has significant benefits for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation but also poses several challenges for India. India has a unique opportunity to play a leading role in achieving this target while ensuring its own sustainable development.

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