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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Discuss the role of technology in promoting sustainable development in India. What are the challenges in adopting sustainable technologies, and how can they be overcome? (150 words)

    26 Apr, 2023 GS Paper 3 Science & Technology


    • Start your answer with a brief introduction about Technology in various fields.
    • Discuss the role of technology in promoting sustainable development.
    • Discuss Challenges in adoption of sustainable technologies.
    • Suggest some measures to overcome challenges.
    • Conclude accordingly.


    Technology has been playing a crucial role in promoting sustainable development across various sectors, from energy to agriculture to transportation. Technology has the potential to contribute significantly to sustainable development by promoting resource efficiency, reducing waste, and improving environmental and social outcomes


    Role of Technology in Promoting Sustainable Development in India:

    • Renewable Energy:
      • Renewable energy technologies, such as solar, wind, and hydropower, can play a critical role in promoting sustainable development in India by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing energy security, and promoting rural electrification.
    • Energy Efficiency:
      • Technological advancements in energy-efficient devices, buildings, and appliances are reducing energy consumption and lowering greenhouse gas emissions.
      • Smart grid technology, for instance, enables the efficient distribution and management of electricity, reducing wastage and costs.
    • Waste Management:
      • Advanced technologies, such as waste-to-energy and recycling, can help in reducing waste and promoting sustainable waste management practices.
    • Water Conservation:
      • Technology can help in promoting water conservation by enabling efficient use of water resources through technologies such as drip irrigation and water-efficient appliances.
    • Sustainable Agriculture:
      • Precision agriculture technologies, including sensors, drones, and GPS mapping, are being used to optimize crop yields while reducing inputs like water and fertilizers.
      • This helps to increase agricultural productivity while minimizing the negative impact on the environment.
    • Circular Economy:
      • Technology is facilitating the transition from a linear economy to a circular one, where waste is minimized and resources are reused and recycled.
      • For instance, 3D printing technology is enabling the production of spare parts on demand, reducing the need for new products and associated resource consumption.

    Challenges in Adopting Sustainable Technologies:

    • High Costs:
      • One of the biggest challenges in adopting sustainable technologies is the high cost of implementation and deployment.
      • For example, installing solar panels or wind turbines can be expensive. This high cost can deter individuals and businesses from adopting sustainable technologies.
    • Limited Scalability:
      • Some sustainable technologies may not be scalable, meaning they may not be able to meet the demand of large populations or industries.
      • For example, some renewable energy sources may not be able to provide the same level of energy as traditional sources.
    • Lack of Awareness:
      • Many people may not be aware of sustainable technologies and their benefits.
      • They may not know how to use them or how to maintain them. This lack of knowledge can be a barrier to adoption.
    • Lack of Supportive Policies:
      • Inadequate policy support and regulatory frameworks also hinder the adoption of sustainable technologies.

    Overcoming the Challenges:

    • Financial Incentives:
      • Providing financial incentives, such as tax credits, subsidies, and low-interest loans, can help in promoting the adoption of sustainable technologies.
    • Improve Infrastructure:
      • Governments and organizations can invest in the infrastructure required to support sustainable technologies, such as electric vehicle charging stations or renewable energy transmission lines.
    • Awareness Campaigns:
      • Education and awareness campaigns can help in promoting the understanding and acceptance of sustainable technologies among stakeholders.
    • Foster Collaboration:
      • Collaboration between businesses, governments, and communities can help overcome resistance to change and promote the adoption of sustainable technologies.


    With the growing need to mitigate the impacts of climate change and environmental degradation, sustainable technologies offer a solution that can help achieve economic growth while protecting the planet.

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