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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. What is meant by 'Peri-Urban Agriculture'? How can it help in adapting to the challenges posed by climate change? (250 words)

    06 Jun, 2019 GS Paper 3 Economy


    • Describe 'Peri-Urban Agriculture'.
    • Elaborate on its benefits in dealing with climate change.
    • Give conclusion.


    • Peri-urban agriculture occurs in surrounding the boundaries of cities throughout the world and includes products from crop and livestock agriculture, fisheries and forestry.
    • It also includes non-wood forest products, as well as ecological services provided by agriculture, fisheries and forestry. Often multiple farming and gardening systems exist in and near a single city.


    • Green zones around urban areas:  Beyond the agro-products provided, trees will help in sustaining  ecosystems by acting as carbon sinks, protection of water-supply catchments for the cities, protection against landslides thus helping climate change mitigation.
    • Reduction in phenomenon of Urban heat island: Due to dense population and use of concrete as building material urban heat islands with higher temperature then surrounding areas are created.
    • Lower need for transportation: Due to rapid urbanization in the past years, demand for vegetables, fruits and flowers is constantly increasing in these areas. Peri-urban agriculture  will reduce the burden on transport, and help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cold storages.
    • Diversification of food basket:Peri-Urban Agriculture can help in climate change adaptation through diversification of food resources for the urban population.
    • Restrict unplanned urbanization: Unplanned and rapid urbanization causes environmental pollution which causes climate change.  Peri-Urban Agriculture will help in creating attractive employment option and prevent the conversion of agricultural land near urban areas into cities and towns.


    There is need for policy changes like effective legislation, long-term  leases, leasing of the plots and gardens through a contract recognized by the municipality and correctly registered to promote participation by potential farmers, vegetable growers and livestock producers.

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