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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Examine the problem of infiltration in India, alongwith with its impact and possible solutions. (250 words)

    10 Apr, 2019 GS Paper 3 Internal Security


    • Give introduction by mentioning characteristics of India’s International border.
    • Describe the problems of infiltration and discuss its impact.
    • Provide possible solutions to the problems.


    • India shares 15,106.7 km of international boundary with its neighbors which is long and porous and some boundaries are also disputed. These characteristics of border cause significant and unique problems for India.


    Problem of Infiltration in India and its impact

    • Illegal Migration: India faces problem of illegal migration from Bangladesh and other neighboring countries. It leads to pressure on resources creating a source of conflict in India. Illegal migration has also created ethnic conflict in north east as local population in many states have been reduced to minority causing sense of insecurity and hence ethnic conflicts.  
    • Terrorism:India has been major victim of cross border terrorism sponsored by Pakistan which is mostly executed through cross border infiltration. Recent attacks in Pathankot, Uri and Pulwama underline the security challenge posed by infiltration.
    • Insurgency and Left Wing Extremism: Infiltration is being used by external forces to support Insurgency in North east by extending support of arms and ammunition through infiltration. Similarly Left wing Extremist groups also find external support through infiltration.
    • Import of Counterfeit currency and Drugs smuggling: India faces significant menace of fake currency and drugs smuggling which is routed through borders due to easy cross border infiltration.


    Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System

    • India should adopt an integrated and holistic solution for tackling problem of Infiltration.
    • The proposed CIBMS is touted as a more robust and integrated system that is capable of addressing the gaps in the present system of border security by seamlessly integrating human resources, weapons, and high-tech surveillance equipment.
    • It has three main components:
      • new high-tech surveillance devices such as sensors, detectors, cameras, ground-based radar systems, micro-aerostats, lasers as well as existing equipment for round-the-clock surveillance of the international border;
      • an efficient and dedicated communication network including fibre optic cables and satellite communication for transmitting data gathered by these diverse high-tech surveillance and detection devices; and
      • a command and control centre to which the data will be transmitted in order to apprise the senior commanders about the happenings on the ground and thus providing a composite picture of the international border
    • India has started building strategic roads, advanced landing air strip, new infantry battalion and strike corps and has revamped the border check posts.
    • Building socio-economic Infrastructure: Border infrastructure is critical as border population is strategic asset to maintain border security. Thus schemes like Border Area Development Plan and Border Infrastructure and Management (BIM) need to be implemented effectively.
    • Use of space technology in Border management: The Government can promote use of space technology in improving Border Management:- Island development, Border Security, Communication and Navigation, GIS & Operations Planning System and Border Infrastructure Development.


    Infiltration is major threat to India’s security it needs to be dealt in a holistic manner focusing on both security infrastructure as well as socio-economic infrastructure.

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