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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Analyze the impact of climate change on the Indian monsoon and the consequences for agriculture and water resources. (150 words)

    08 Feb, 2023 GS Paper 3 Bio-diversity & Environment


    • Start your answer by discussing the impact of climate change on the Indian monsoon.
    • Discuss its consequences on agriculture and water resources.
    • Conclude accordingly.


    • Climate change is a global issue that has been increasingly affecting the natural environment and human lives. One of the major impacts of climate change is the alteration of the Indian monsoon system, which has serious consequences for the agricultural sector and water resources in India.
      • The Indian monsoon is a vital component of the country's climate system and plays a critical role in the economy and livelihoods of millions of people.


    • Indian monsoon system:
      • The Indian Monsoon System is a seasonal wind system that affects the Indian subcontinent and surrounding areas.
      • South West Monsoon occurs annually from June to September, bringing abundant rainfall to the region. The monsoon is caused by the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which is the region of low pressure that lies near the equator.
        • It is crucial for agriculture in India, as it provides the necessary moisture for crop growth and sustains the country's water resources.
    • Impact of Climate Change:
      • Changes in Monsoon Timing and Intensity: Climate change is causing shifts in the timing and intensity of the monsoon, leading to changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall.
        • This can result in droughts in some regions and floods in others, affecting crop yields and water availability.
      • Agriculture Impacts: Changes in the timing and intensity of the monsoon can lead to reduced crop yields and increased crop damage, as well as increased pest and disease outbreaks.
        • This can result in reduced food security and increased poverty, especially for rural communities that depend on agriculture for their livelihoods.
      • Water Resource Impacts: Climate change is causing changes in the availability and distribution of water resources in India, with some areas experiencing increased water scarcity while others experience increased flooding.
        • This can affect the availability of water for agriculture and other uses, leading to reduced food production and increased water-borne diseases.
      • Examples: One example of the impacts of climate change on the Indian monsoon can be seen in the state of Maharashtra, where droughts in recent years have led to reduced crop yields and increased water scarcity, affecting the livelihoods of farmers and rural communities.
        • In the state of Kerala, increased rainfall and flooding associated with the monsoon have caused significant damage to infrastructure and crops, leading to economic losses and increased health risks.
    • Suggestions to improve the above scenario:
      • Implementing water-saving technologies in agriculture to reduce water stress.
      • Developing early warning systems for extreme weather events to mitigate their impacts.
      • Promoting sustainable land use practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the resilience of agricultural lands.
      • Increasing investment in research and development to improve understanding of the impacts of climate change on the monsoon system.
      • Encouraging the adoption of climate-resilient agricultural practices and technologies to reduce the risks posed by climate change.


    • The Indian monsoon system is a critical component of the country's climate system, and its alteration due to climate change has serious consequences for agriculture and water resources.
    • Climate change is causing the monsoon to become more unpredictable, leading to reduced rainfall, increased water stress, and decreased crop yields. Addressing the impacts of climate change on the Indian monsoon system is crucial for ensuring the sustainability of agriculture and water resources in India.

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