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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Analyze the impact of economic policies on social justice in India, and suggest measures to ensure that economic growth is inclusive and equitable. (150 words)

    17 Jan, 2023 GS Paper 2 Social Justice


    • Start your answer by explaining the impact of economic policies on social justice.
    • Suggest measures to ensure equitable and inclusive economic growth.
    • Conclude accordingly.


    • Economic policies have a significant impact on social justice in India. Social justice, in the context of India, refers to the fair distribution of wealth, opportunities, and resources among all citizens, regardless of their socio-economic status.
      • However, the current economic order in India has been criticized for exacerbating inequality and marginalization of certain groups, and for not promoting inclusive economic growth. Nevertheless, there had been various instances where various government initiatives tried to reduce inequalities and promote inclusive economic growth.


    • The key areas where economic policies have had an impact on social justice in India is sectors like:
      • Education and Literacy: As per the Union Budget 2022-2023 the allocation for education in India is around 3% of the total GDP. which is considered low compared to other countries.
      • Therefore, the need to make efforts to increase the allocation for education in the budget to the 6% of the GDP level.
      • Wealth and Income Distribution: Economic policies that promote distributive justice through progressive taxation, social welfare programs, and targeted investments in marginalized regions helped to ensure that the benefits of economic growth are shared more equitably.
        • For example, India's Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA) provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of rural households willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage.
      • Environmental Justice: Economic policies promoted sustainable development, which helped in ensuring that marginalized communities are not disproportionately affected by environmental degradation and resource depletion.
        • For example, the National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF) in India is a fund set up by the Government of India to finance research and development activities in the field of clean energy.
      • Economic Justice: There is need to implement inclusive economic policies to promote equitable distribution of wealth.
      • Further, economic policies in India have often criticized for not promoting social equality and welfare. But there are various government initiatives that promotes economic justice so, that citizens have access to fair and equitable economic opportunities.
        • For example, India's Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 provides for fair compensation to the affected persons whose land is acquired, and also includes provisions for resettlement and rehabilitation of the affected persons.
    • Measures to ensure equitable and inclusive economic growth:
      • Leveraging technology for inclusive, sustainable and participatory development: NITI Aayog's strategy also emphasizes the importance of leveraging technology to promote inclusive, sustainable, and participatory development.
        • This can include measures such as increasing access to digital infrastructure and services, promoting digital literacy, and encouraging the use of technology to improve social and economic outcomes.
      • Improving Education: Improving the educational infrastructure and making sure that every child in India becomes literate is an important measure to ensure inclusive growth. Education is the primary need for the economic growth of any nation.
      • Equality in incomes, wealth, and opportunities: The attainment of a wider measure of equality in incomes, wealth, and opportunities should form an integral part of economic development and social advance.
      • Improve health sector: The percentage of GDP allocation has been around 1-1.5% of GDP. However, it is important to note that this is significantly lower than the recommended allocation of a 6%.


    Economic policies have a significant impact on social justice in India. However, there are current economic policies that are trying to reduce inequality and marginalization by promoting inclusive economic growth.

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