Study Material | Mains Test Series
This just in:

Mains Practice Questions

Mains practice questions is now being continued in Be Mains Ready program with a dedicated syllabus coverage for Mains 2019. To join this program, click here "Be Mains Ready program"

  • Q. Identify the challenges involved in the implementation of micro-irrigation technology to promote water use efficiency in agriculture. (250 words)

    03 Feb, 2019 GS Paper 3 Economy

    Answer :

    Approach:

    • Introduce by giving emphasis on water scarcity situations in India.
    • Give the type and advantages of micro-irrigation technology.
    • Identify challenges and give steps taken to resolve in way forward.

    Introduction

    • Water is a scarce natural resource and the major requirement of water is in agricultural sector. The water availability depends on various hydro-meteorological factors and therefore the efficient use of available water for irrigation is vital but a major challenge. Hence, technological innovations and interventions are essential for water development and management for sustainable agriculture and micro-irrigation is one such innovative technology.
    • According to the study , the average penetration level of micro-irrigation in the country is 5.5 % which is much less compared to other countries

    Body

    • Sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation are the commonly used micro-irrigation methods.

    Benefits:

      • Micro-irrigation technology ensures water use efficiency as much as 50- 90%. This can be achieved due to the fact that micro-irrigation helps to reduce conveyance losses, runoff, evaporation losses, seepage and deep percolation losses significantly.
      • Since low flow rate is required, small wells can also be used as a source and it helps for energy savings upto 30.5%.
      • The crop yield is increased and it was stated that the productivity for crops & fruits is increased up to 42.4 % and the increase in productivity for vegetables up to 52.7%.
      • More focussed and judicious use of water has resulted in the increase in farmer’s income.
      • Reduction in energy consumption and in the use of chemical fertilizers & pesticides.
    • Challenges involved in the implementation of micro-irrigation technology:
      • Lack of awareness on farmer’s part: Inadequate focus on nationwide spreading of micro-irrigation technology.
      • Inefficiency in implementation as the implementation agency was changed from a dedicated mission to a component part of NMSA under PMKSY. In many States, the released funds were not utilised properly due to the lack of implementation strategies;
      • Lack of reliable guidelines and delay in Government orders
      • Government fund: Unavailability of subsidy funds for installation as subsidy reduced from 50% to 35% and allocation of funds under various schemes is declined;
      • Financial: Difficulty in getting necessary supports from financial services. It was reported that a lower adoption rate due to the reduction in budget during the period (2013-16).
      •  Energy: the main input for an irrigation system is energy, and for large scale projects, only electricity is a viable source which is still beyond the reach of every farmer.

    Way forward

    • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) had On-farm water management component which focuses on promotion of efficient technologies and water use efficiency.
    • “Per Drop More Crop” - Improving Water Use Efficiency. This scheme focuses on all aspects of water development and management with micro-irrigation as an integral component.
    • Various steps taken by Government for promotion of micro irrigation include
      • Training and awareness programmes
      • Awareness through print media and radio & TV talks
      • Organization of workshops, seminars and interactive meetings
      • Publicity creation through Exhibitions, Fairs and Kisan Melas
      • Publication of literature and
      • Short duration films.
    • All such programmes should be implemented with a strong will to achieve water use efficiency.

SMS Alerts
 

Please login or register to view note list

close

Please login or register to list article as bookmarked

close
 

Please login or register to make your note

close

Please login or register to list article as progressed

close

Please login or register to list article as bookmarked

close