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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Increasing radicalisation is a major threat to internal security of India.’ In the light of the statement discuss the measures that can be taken with regard to constitutional values. (250 Words)

    27 Jan, 2022 GS Paper 3 Internal Security


    • Start with briefly writing example/data to show the increasing radicalisation in India and the reasons for it.
    • Discuss the threat to internal security caused by radicalisation.
    • Discuss the measures that can be taken.
    • Conclude suitably.


    Recently, a ISIS module was busted by the National Investigation Agency. The module was found to have a pan-India presence, stretching across Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Kerala. The investigations have gone on to reveal that online radicalisation played an important role in the recruitment of members as well as the preparation and/or execution of extremist activities by the members

    Radicalisation refers to the process of an individual’s transformation from a moderate, law-abiding citizen into an active, anti-state, violent extremist.


    Factors Behind Radicalisation

    • Individual socio-psychological factors, which include grievances and emotions such as alienation and exclusion, anger and frustration and a strong sense of injustice.
    • Socio-economic factors, which include social exclusion, marginalisation and discrimination (real or perceived), limited education or employment etc.
    • Political factors, which include weak and non-participatory political systems lacking good governance and regard for civil society.
    • Social media, which provides connectivity, virtual participation and an echo-chamber for like-minded extremist views, accelerates the process of radicalisation.
    • Religious factors like the use of religion by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (IS) to spread its influence all over the world is an example.

    Threat of Radicalisation

    • It severely poses challenges to the internal security of India in many ways. Radicalisation is said to be the first step to terrorism.
    • It accentuates anti state violent feelings and thus the government resources are wasted in tackling the violent clashes.
    • It impacts the social capital and the power and energy of youth is not utilised in the development of the country.

    Measures that can be taken

    • Deradicalisation Strategies at War-footing: The Indian state should develop and enforce de-radicalisation, counter-radicalisation and anti-radicalisation strategies at a pan-India and pan-ideology level on a war footing.
      • Such attempts must be informed by the fact that the battle against radicalisation begins in the minds and hearts much before it manifests in terms of violence.
    • Checking Cross-Border Flow of Propaganda: Efforts must be made to first stem the flow of propaganda from across the Indian borders.
    • A uniform statutory or policy framework to deal with radicalisation, de-radicalisation and its associated strategies should be developed.
    • Rehabilitation Measures: Arrested and convicted individuals must not only be prosecuted and punished as a measure of deterrence or retribution but their reformation and rehabilitation must also be prioritised.
    • The promotion of the syncretic nature of religions in India should be promoted through the development of counter-narratives, promotion of constitutional values and virtues, promotion of sports and other activities in schools and other educational institutions aimed at mainstreaming the youth.

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