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Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission

  • 09 Dec 2021
  • 5 min read

Why in News

According to the Lok Sabha, Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM) has performed significantly well in the last four years.

Key Points

  • About:
    • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS), launched in 2016 by the MInistry of Rural Development (MoRD) to deliver integrated project based infrastructure in the rural areas, which also include development of economic activities and skill development.
      • A predecessor to SPMRM was the Provision of Urban Amenities to Rural Areas (PURA), announced in 2003.
    • Main objective of the scheme is bridging the rural-urban divide-viz: economic, technological and those related to facilities and services.
  • Background:
    • According to the 2011 Census, India has more than 6 lakh villages while there are around 7,000 towns and urban centres. Out of a total population the rural population accounts for 69% and urban population 31%.
      • About 70% of the population lives in rural areas and about 50% of the overall labour force is still dependent on agriculture that is not productive enough.
      • The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) contribution of agriculture to the nation is only about 14% while for industries and services sector (employers of people living in urban areas), it is 26% and 60% respectively.
    • Large parts of rural areas in the country are not stand-alone settlements but part of a cluster of settlements, which are relatively proximate to each other. These clusters typically illustrate potential for growth, have economic drivers and derive locational and competitive advantages.
    • These clusters, once developed, can then be classified as 'Rurban'. Hence taking cognizance of this, the Government of India, has launched the SPMRM, aimed at developing such rural areas by provisioning of economic, social and physical infrastructure facilities.
  • Rurban Clusters (Non-Tribal and Tribal):
    • They are identified across the country’s rural areas showing increasing signs of urbanization - i.e. increase in population density, high levels of non-farm employment, presence of growing economic activities and other socioeconomic parameters.
    • For the purposes of SPMRM, Rurban areas refer to a cluster of 15-20 villages having about 30 to 40 lakh population.
    • The clusters will be geographically contiguous Gram Panchayats with a population of about 25000 to 50000 in plain and coastal areas and a population of 5000 to 15000 in desert, hilly or tribal areas.
  • Role of states:
    • The State Government identifies the clusters in accordance with the Framework for Implementation prepared by the MoRD.
    • For the selection of clusters, the MoRD is adopting a scientific process of cluster selection which involves an objective analysis at the district, sub district and village level, of the demography, economy, tourism and pilgrimage significance and transportation corridor impact.
  • Progress:
    • Out of 300 rurban clusters, 291 Integrated Cluster Action Plans (ICAPs) and 282 Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) have been developed by States /UTs with a proposed investment of Rs. 27,788.44 (Critical Gap Fund + Convergence Fund).
    • Out of total 76,973 projected works, a total of 40,751 (55%) works are either completed or near completion.
  • Significance:
    • SPMRM growth clusters are playing a role in reducing urban migration by ensuring that basic infrastructure, utilities are provided and industrialization is promoted.
    • It is very relevant for ensuring transformational developments as against transitional developments in India’s rural development sector.
Provision of Urban Amenities to Rural Areas
  • About:
    • PURA was mooted by the former President Dr. Abdul Kalam in January 2003 as a way of empowering and accelerating rural development.
      • PURA 2.0 as a central sector scheme was launched in 2012 focussing on the development of potential growth centres such as census towns.
    • It was launched in order to ensure Provision of livelihood opportunities and urban amenities in rural areas to bridge the rural – urban divide.
  • Mission:

Source: PIB

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