For Prelims: Global TB Report 2023, Tuberculosis (TB), Covid-19, Multidrug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB), United Nations (UN), World Health Organization (WHO), Universal Health Coverage (UHC). For Mains: Global TB Report 2023, Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes.
Multisectoral action is also needed to address TB determinants such as poverty, undernourishment, HIV infection, smoking, and diabetes to reduce the number of people acquiring infection and developing TB disease.
What is Tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can practically affect any organ of the body. The most common ones are lungs, pleura (lining around the lungs), lymph nodes, intestines, spine, and brain.
It is an airborne infection that spreads through close contact with the infected, especially in densely populated spaces with poor ventilation.
Common symptoms of active lung TB are cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
TB is a treatable and curable disease. It is treated with a standard 6-month course of 4 antimicrobial drugs that are provided with information, supervision and support to the patient by a health worker or trained volunteer.
Anti-TB medicines have been used for decades and strains that are resistant to 1 or more of the medicines have been documented in every country surveyed.
Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB):
It is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the 2 most powerful, first-line anti-TB drugs.
MDR-TB is treatable and curable by using second-line drugs such as Bedaquiline.
Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs, often leaving patients without any further treatment options.