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World Tuberculosis Day 2023

  • 24 Mar 2023
  • 5 min read

For Prelims: TB-free by 2025, WHO, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, World TB Report 2022, Nikshay Poshan Yojna, DBT.

For Mains: World Tuberculosis Day 2023.

Why in News?

World Tuberculosis (TB) Day is observed on 24th March every year to spread awareness about the disease and how best to combat it.

  • India aims to make the nation TB-free by 2025, whereas the Global Target for TB elimination is 2030.
  • Theme for 2023: Yes! We can end TB!

Why is World TB Day Observed and What is its Significance?

  • On this day in 1882, Dr. Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that causes TB, and his discovery opened the way towards diagnosing and curing this disease.
  • Even today TB is one of the world's deadliest infectious killers. As per WHO (World Health Organisation), every day, over 4100 people lose their lives to TB and about 28,000 people fall ill with this disease. Deaths from tuberculosis have risen in 2020 for the first time in more than a decade.
    • According to the WHO, in 2020, around 9,900,000 people fell ill with TB and died, around 1,500,000. Since the year 2000, 66,000,000 lives have been saved by efforts taken globally to end TB.
    • India accounts for roughly 28% of TB cases in the world, as per the Global TB Report 2022.
  • Therefore, World TB Day is observed to educate people around the world about the disease TB and its impact.

What is Tuberculosis?

  • About:
    • Tuberculosis is an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can practically affect any organ of the body. The most common ones are lungs, pleura (lining around the lungs), lymph nodes, intestines, spine, and brain.
  • Transmission:
    • It is an airborne infection that spreads through close contact with the infected, especially in densely populated spaces with poor ventilation.
  • Symptoms:
    • Common symptoms of active lung TB are cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
  • Treatment:
    • TB is a treatable and curable disease. It is treated with a standard 6-month course of 4 antimicrobial drugs that are provided with information, supervision and support to the patient by a health worker or trained volunteer.
    • Anti-TB medicines have been used for decades and strains that are resistant to 1 or more of the medicines have been documented in every country surveyed.
      • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to isoniazid and rifampicin, the 2 most powerful, first-line anti-TB drugs.
        • MDR-TB is treatable and curable by using second-line drugs such as Bedaquiline.
      • Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is a more serious form of MDR-TB caused by bacteria that do not respond to the most effective second-line anti-TB drugs, often leaving patients without any further treatment options.

What are the Initiatives to Combat TB?

  • Global Efforts:
  • India’s Efforts:
    • National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Tuberculosis Elimination (2017-2025), The Nikshay Ecosystem (National TB information system), Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY- financial support), TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign.
    • Currently, two vaccines VPM (Vaccine Projekt Management) 1002 and MIP (Mycobacterium Indicus Pranii) have been developed and identified for TB, and are under Phase-3 clinical trial.
    • In 2018 Nikshay Poshan Yojna was launched, which aimed to support every Tuberculosis (TB) Patient by providing a Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) of Rs 500 per month for nutritional needs.

Source: DTE

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