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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Globalisation has been widely debated as a matter of boon or bane for the world. In this context, discuss the ethical challenges posed by the process of globalization. 

    02 Mar, 2021 GS Paper 4 Theoretical Questions


    • Start the answer by briefly discussing the process of globalization.
    • Discuss the ethical challenges associated with globalization.
    • Conclude Suitably.


    Globalization is the process of the spread of products, technology, information, and jobs across national borders and cultures. It has transformed the world from a collection of discrete communities to more integrating along with the cultural, political, and economic spheres.

    However, as globalization operates across diverse cultural and legal frameworks, it has given rise to moral dilemmas in labor standards, marketing practices, the environment, corruption, and human rights.


    Ethical Challenges Associated With Globalization

    • Increasing Inequality: The general complaint about globalization is that it has made the rich richer while making the poor poorer.
      • The UN Development Program reports that the richest 20% of the world's population consume 86% of the world's resources while the rest 80% consume just 14%.
    • Malpractices of MNCs: Multinational corporations (MNCs) are accused of crony capitalism, social injustice, unfair working conditions as well as lack of concern for the environment, mismanagement of natural resources, and ecological damage.
    • Forced Migration: Globalisation has promoted economic determinism which has led to environmental degradation, pollution, loss of biodiversity and habitat.
      • This has led to a sharp increase in the number of environmental refugees and economic refugees.
      • This has often resulted in gross violation of human rights in many developing and least developing countries.
    • Loss of Family Values: Globalisation has promoted higher consumerism which led to the dissolution of families, rise in nuclear families, and increasing isolation of old-aged parents.


    Although the process of globalization is many centuries old (as reflected in the silk road), it is more of a modern age phenomenon. It has certainly bridged the gap between the developed and developing world, but it also resulted in many global issues like pandemics, climate change, terrorism, etc.

    Thus, the need is to adopt a more sustainable model of globalization .i.e Indian version of globalization Vasudhiva Kutumbkam.

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