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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Discuss the significance of BRICS as a non-Western forum in reshaping global governance in the 21st century, with special reference to India's perspective. (150 Words)

    20 Feb, 2024 GS Paper 2 International Relations


    • Write a brief introduction about the BRICS as a Non-Western forum.
    • Mention the role of BRICS in reshaping global governance in the 21st century.
    • Write a conclusion.


    BRICS, consisting of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, has evolved from an economic bloc to a key non-Western platform shaping global governance. Beyond its initial focus on emerging economies, BRICS now encompasses political, diplomatic, and strategic aspects. It offers member countries, like India, a unique platform to assert interests, promote South-South cooperation, and challenge Western-dominated global institutions.


    • Collective Voice of Developing Nations: BRICS represents approximately 40% of the global population and contributes to over a quarter of the world’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). With the recent inclusion of six more nations such as Argentina, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE. BRICS now encompasses nearly half of the world’s population. This expansion strengthens BRICS as a representative body of the developing world.
    • Anti-United States Sentiment and Multipolarity: The growing interest in BRICS is fueled by two key motivations. Firstly, there exists a significant anti-United States sentiment globally, prompting these countries to seek a platform where they can collectively address challenges.
      • Secondly, there is a strong inclination towards multipolarity, a desire for a forum through which Global South countries can demonstrate their unity. BRICS provides precisely such a platform, allowing these nations to assert their voice and influence.
    • Challenging Western Hegemony: While economic performance within the BRICS consortium varies, geopolitical dynamics have shifted. The conflict in Ukraine has united Western nations and reinforced strategic collaboration between China and Russia.
      • Consequently, BRICS has evolved into an ambitious entity capable of challenging the established Western geopolitical outlook.
      • It positions itself as a counterforce to forums like the G7 and the World Bank.
      • The process of expansion further enhances its potential to bring about significant alterations within the global governance landscape.
    • India’s Strategic Position: For India, the expanded BRICS serves as a crucial forum. It allows India to introduce a fresh and fairer outlook on global collaboration while addressing pressing challenges. India strategically positions itself as the voice of the Global South and the new growth engine of the world within this influential bloc.


    BRICS stands as a formidable non-Western entity reshaping global governance, with India's active involvement signaling its dedication to fostering a fairer and more inclusive international system. BRICS presents a significant opportunity for India to participate in reshaping global governance in the 21st century. While challenges exist, India's active engagement can help steer the forum towards promoting a more multipolar, equitable, and responsive global order.

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