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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Analyze how the India-Nepal Joint Commission can effectively address common concerns and promote mutual interests between Nepal and India. (150 Words)

    09 Jan, 2024 GS Paper 2 International Relations


    • Write a Brief Introduction about the India-Nepal joint commission.
    • Write joint commission's effectiveness in addressing shared concerns.
    • Write a conclusion.

    The India-Nepal Joint Commission is a bilateral mechanism at the Foreign Ministers’ level that reviews the entire spectrum of Nepal-India relations. It was established in 1987 and has held seven meetings so far, the latest one being in January 2024.


    Challenges associated with India-Nepal Relations:

    • Boundary Issue:
      • The Indo-Nepal ties face a significant challenge in the Kalapani boundary dispute, stemming from conflicting interpretations of historical agreements. The 2019 escalation, marked by India's new political map and Nepal's counter-map, underscores the ongoing tension over territorial claims.
    • Treaty of Peace and Friendship: The 1950 treaty between India and Nepal grants special privileges and rights to the citizens of both countries, such as free movement, trade, and employment.
      • However, some sections of Nepalese society view the treaty as unequal and outdated and demand its revision or abrogation.
    • Eminent Persons’ Group (EPG) report: In 2016, India and Nepal established the EPG to review bilateral relations and suggest improvements. The group submitted its report in 2018, proposing various recommendations such as the Revision of the 1950 Nepal-India Treaty of Peace and Friendship and enhanced economic cooperation. But the report remains officially unimplemented, adding to the frustration in India-Nepal relations.
    • Development Projects: Indo-Nepal ties face challenges with delayed and problematic development projects, including Pancheshwar Multipurpose and Arun III Hydropower. Concerns also arise from a growing trade deficit, limited market access, and non-tariff barriers, impacting major initiatives like Integrated Check Posts and Cross-Border Railways.

    Joint Commission's Role in India-Nepal Relations:

    • The Joint Commission can facilitate resolution by initiating dialogue, expediting the Joint Technical Committee's work on boundary demarcation, and promoting trust by refraining from unilateral actions.
    • The Commission can aid EPG report implementation by addressing India's concerns on treaty revision, recognizing positive aspects, and monitoring progress for fostering cooperation and mutual benefits.
    • The Joint Commission can advance projects by facilitating cross-country coordination, addressing technical and financial hurdles, and ensuring transparency. It should also enhance trade cooperation, remove barriers, and explore new collaborative areas like digital connectivity, health, education, tourism, and agriculture.


    The unique India-Nepal relationship requires nurturing through the Joint Commission, addressing challenges, fostering dialogue, and promoting mutual interests. Leveraging cooperation opportunities, enhancing connectivity, and upholding principles of mutual respect and non-interference are key to strengthening this special bond.

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