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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. ‘Virus of Conflict is affecting the functioning of the SCO’ In the light of the above statement point out the role of India in mitigating the problems. (Answer in 150 words, UPSC Mains 2023)

    28 Nov, 2023 GS Paper 2 International Relations


    • Begin by briefly introducing the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).
    • Discuss the ongoing conflicts within SCO which hindrance its working and discuss the ways with which India can mitigate the problems.
    • COnclude by emphasizing the importance of India's role in mitigating the "Virus of Conflict" within the SCO.


    The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) has emerged as a major non-western security alliance encompassing majority of the world's population, that aims to promote peace in Eurasia. It is bound to have issues within itself, considering the varied nature and interests of its members.


    Conflicts within SCO

    • India and Pakistan: India’s long-lost cousin never seems to want to end its conflict with its neighbour.
    • India and China: China’s aggressive stance of claiming territories of its neighbours as its own has led to problems with its adjacent nations including India.
      • The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) too is a problem since it violates India's territorial integrity and is also seen as an aggressive debt-trap move.
    • Economic Disparities: With members having huge income disparities, internal friction is bound to arise.

    How India can mitigate problems

    • Dialogue Promotion: India has been known as a proponent of dialogues and diplomatic solutions.
    • Cultural Diplomacy: India enjoys a great number of cultural ties with most of the SCO countries. India should look to properly leverage this soft power.
    • Backchannel Diplomacy: Track II diplomacy can help create environment conducive for conflict management.
    • Joint-military Exercises: These are a great way to familiarise militaries and create healthy relations between nations. For example, Joint SCO anti-terror drill.


    India’s role in mitigation of various SCO conflicts can be immense considering its values of ‘Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam' and historical policies such as Panchsheel and non-alignment.

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