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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Examine the impacts of globalization in the context of developing countries like India and discuss how India can strike a balance between economic growth and safeguarding its cultural and social identities in an increasingly globalized world. (250 words)

    30 Oct, 2023 GS Paper 1 Indian Society


    • Define Globalisation
    • Mention the impacts of globalization
    • Mention how India can strike a balance
    • Conclude on a positive note


    Globalization is a process of interaction, integration and interdependence among the people, companies, and governments of different nations. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations. It also has both positive and negative consequences for the people.

    Impacts of Globalization in India:

    • Economic Growth:
      • Increased foreign investment and trade have accelerated economic growth.
      • The IT and outsourcing sectors have thrived, becoming global leaders.
      • Rise of a burgeoning middle class and higher GDP growth rates.
      • Example: Liberalisation of the tax regime and FDI.
    • Cultural Exchange:
      • Exposure to diverse cultures and ideas through media and technology.
      • A growing interest in Indian culture and art globally.
      • Fusion of Indian and Western elements in fashion, music, and cinema.
      • Example: The Ministry of Culture has launched the Ek Bharat
      • Shreshtha Bharat program to encourage interfaith and inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation.
    • Social Changes:
      • Urbanization and the migration of people to cities.
      • Changing lifestyles and consumer behavior.
      • Increased access to education and healthcare.
      • The Smart Cities Mission aims to improve the quality of life of urban residents by providing core infrastructure, a clean environment, sustainable mobility, digital connectivity, etc.

    Striking a Balance:

    • Promote Cultural Education:
      • Invest in educational programs that preserve and promote Indian culture.
      • Encourage cultural exchanges and dialogues.
      • Example: The NEP 2020 aims to promote secular education that fosters tolerance and understanding among different communities. It also includes curricula that celebrate diversity and promote national unity.
    • Support Local Industries:
      • Implement policies that protect indigenous industries.
      • Promote "Make in India" initiatives to boost domestic production.
      • Example: The Ministry of Commerce and Industry has launched the Make in India initiative to boost domestic manufacturing and make India a global manufacturing hub.
    • Cultural Diplomacy:
      • Harness India's soft power to promote its cultural heritage globally.
      • Encourage tourism and artistic events showcasing Indian culture.
      • Example: The Ministry of Tourism has launched the Incredible India campaign to promote India as a tourist destination globally. The campaign showcases the diverse and unique attractions of India such as its culture, heritage, wildlife, cuisine, etc.
    • Social Inclusivity:
      • Develop policies that ensure marginalized communities benefit from economic growth.
      • Strengthen social safety nets and promote inclusivity.
      • Example: The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has launched the Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY) to develop model villages with a high concentration of Scheduled Castes (SCs).


    Globalization has undoubtedly propelled India's economic growth and cultural exchange. To strike a balance, India must focus on preserving its rich cultural and social identities while actively participating in the global economy. With the right policies, India can continue to flourish economically without compromising its unique heritage and traditions.

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