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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Analyzing the challenges and implications of communalism on social cohesion and the country's overall development, discuss the role of state policies in tackling communalism. (250 words)

    30 Oct, 2023 GS Paper 1 Indian Society


    • Define Communalism
    • Write Challenges and Implications of Communalism
    • Mention the Role of state policies
    • Conclude in brief


    It is an ideology that emphasizes the separate identity of a religious group in relation to other groups with a tendency to promote its own interests at the expense of others. It is often used as a political propaganda tool to foster the vote bank politics.


    Challenges and Implications of Communalism:

    • Social Division and Alienation
      • Communalism fosters division among different religious or ethnic groups, creating a sense of "us vs. them."This division often results in alienation, mistrust, and isolation among communities.
    • Conflict and Violence
      • Communal tensions can escalate into conflicts and even violence, leading to loss of lives and property.
    • Economic Disparities
      • Communalism can lead to economic disparities as certain groups face discrimination in employment and business opportunities. This can impede the country's economic progress.
    • Political Instability
      • Communal politics can exploit these divisions, leading to instability and ineffective governance.

    The Role of State Policies in Tackling Communalism

    • Educational Reforms
      • Promote secular education that fosters tolerance and understanding among different communities.
      • Include curricula that celebrate diversity and promote national unity.
    • Legal Frameworks
      • Enforce strict anti-discrimination laws that protect the rights of all communities.
      • Ensure swift and fair justice for communal violence cases.
      • Ministry of Home Affairs has set up the National Commission for Communal Harmony, Justice and Reparation to prevent and deal with communal violence.
    • Community Outreach
      • Encourage interfaith and inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation.
      • Support community-level programs that promote social harmony.
      • Ministry of Minority Affairs has launched the Hamari Dharohar scheme to preserve the rich heritage and culture of minority communities in India.
    • Media Regulation
      • Regulate media to prevent the spread of hate speech and misinformation that can exacerbate communal tensions.
      • Promote responsible reporting that focuses on unity and diversity.
    • Economic Inclusion
      • Implement affirmative action policies to ensure equal economic opportunities for marginalized communities.
      • Invest in development projects in areas with a history of communal conflict.
      • The Ministry of Minority Affairs has implemented the Prime Minister’s New 15 Point Programme for the welfare of minorities.
    • Political Reforms
      • Encourage political parties to avoid exploiting communal divisions for electoral gains.
      • Promote inclusive and representative governance structures.
        The Election Commission of India (ECI) has issued guidelines to prevent the misuse of religion and caste for electoral gains.


    Communalism poses significant challenges to social cohesion and a country's overall development. By addressing the root causes of communalism and promoting unity, governments can create an environment conducive to sustainable development and progress for all citizens. It is imperative that nations prioritize these policies to ensure a brighter and more cohesive future.

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