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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. In today's interconnected world, the role of social media platforms in shaping public opinion and discourse is undeniable. Analyse the ethical challenges posed by the spread of misinformation and fake news on social media platforms. Provide suitable examples to support your arguments. (250 words)

    13 Jul, 2023 GS Paper 4 Theoretical Questions


    • Start your answer with a brief introduction of Misinformation and fake news.
    • Explain the Ethical challenges posed by the spread of misinformation and fake news.
    • Discuss the impact of these challenges on society, democracy, and the responsibilities of both users and platform providers.
    • Conclude accordingly.


    Misinformation and fake news are terms used to describe false or misleading information that is intentionally or unintentionally spread on social media platforms, often for political, economic or social purposes. They can take various forms, such as fabricated stories, manipulated images or videos, distorted facts or statistics, or deceptive headlines or captions.


    Ethical challenges posed by the spread of misinformation and fake news:

    • Undermining reliability and credibility of information sources.
    • Distortion of public opinion and compromised decision-making.
    • Viral nature of social media amplifies the reach and impact of false narratives.
    • Rapid dissemination can lead to panic, social unrest, and harm to individuals.
    • Balancing free expression with responsibility for accuracy of information.

    Impact of these Challenges on Society and Democracy

    • Society:
      • Misinformation and fake news can erode the social cohesion, harmony and diversity of society, by creating divisions, conflicts and violence among different groups or communities.
      • They can also impair the social well-being, education and development of society, by affecting the mental health, critical thinking and digital literacy of the users.
    • Democracy:
      • Misinformation and fake news can undermine the democratic values, principles and institutions of democracy, by interfering with the free and fair expression, participation and representation of the citizens.
      • They can also threaten the democratic governance, accountability and transparency of democracy, by influencing or compromising the policies or actions of the leaders or authorities.

    Responsibilities of Users and Platform Providers:

    • Users:
      • Misinformation and fake news can impose ethical responsibilities on the users of social media platforms, such as verifying the accuracy and credibility of the information they consume or share, reporting or flagging the information they suspect to be false or misleading, correcting or retracting the information they have shared in error or ignorance, and educating themselves and others about the sources, motives and consequences of misinformation and fake news.
    • Platform providers:
      • Misinformation and fake news can also impose ethical responsibilities on the platform providers of social media platforms, such as detecting and removing the information that is false or misleading, labelling or warning the information that is disputed or unverified, limiting or blocking the accounts or posts that are spreading misinformation and fake news, and cooperating with other stakeholders such as governments, regulators, media or civil society to combat misinformation and fake news.


    • The 2016 US Presidential Election:
      • Several studies have found that misinformation and fake news were widely circulated on social media platforms during the 2016 US presidential election campaign, which may have influenced the voting behaviour and preferences of some voters.
      • For instance, a study by MIT researchers found that false news stories were 70% more likely to be retweeted than true stories on Twitter.
    • The Covid-19 Pandemic:
      • The Covid-19 pandemic has been accompanied by an infodemic of misinformation and fake news on social media platforms, which may have hampered the public health response and recovery efforts.
      • For instance, a study by researchers found that users who habitually share information on social media platforms are more likely to spread misinformation about Covid-19 than users who share less frequently.


    The spread of misinformation and fake news on social media platforms presents complex ethical challenges. It undermines reliability, distorts public opinion, and threatens democracy. Users must practice critical thinking and responsible sharing, while platform providers have a duty to combat misinformation. By addressing these challenges, society can strive towards a more informed, democratic, and ethically responsible digital environment.

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