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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Discuss the role and functions of the Enforcement Directorate (ED) in India and evaluate its effectiveness in combating economic offenses. What are the major challenges faced by the ED in discharging its duties, and suggest measures to enhance its performance? (250 words)

    16 May, 2023 GS Paper 2 Polity & Governance


    • Start your answer with a brief introduction to the Enforcement Directorate (ED).
    • Describe its functions, challenges faced by it and way forward to minimalize those challenges
    • Conclude your answer with a positive note describing success of ED


    The Enforcement Directorate (ED) is a law enforcement agency. It operates under the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, and is responsible for enforcing economic laws and regulations to combat financial crimes and money laundering. The primary role of the ED is to investigate and prosecute offenses related to foreign exchange violations, money laundering, and economic frauds.


    Functions of the Enforcement Directorate:

    • Enforcement of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA)
    • Enforcement of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA)
    • Investigation of economic offenses, such as money laundering, black money, hawala, and foreign exchange violations
    • Prosecution of economic offenders
    • Recovery of assets that are derived from the proceeds of crime
    • International cooperation in economic crime matters

    Effectiveness in combating economic offenses:

    The ED has been effective in combating economic offenses in India. It has investigated and prosecuted a number of high-profile cases like 2G spectrum, Augusta westland, Nirav Modi scam etc. Recently, the ED has arrested former Maharashtra Home Minister in a money laundering case. The case involves allegations that Deshmukh extorted money from bar owners in Mumbai.

    However, the ED faces a number of challenges in discharging its duties. These challenges include:

    • Lack of Resources: The ED is a relatively small agency with a limited budget. This limits its ability to investigate and prosecute economic offenses.
    • Lack of Cooperation from Other Law Enforcement Agencies: The ED often faces difficulty in getting cooperation from other law enforcement agencies, such as the police and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). This can make it difficult to build cases against economic offenders.
    • Complexity of Economic Crime Cases: Economic crime cases are often complex and time-consuming to investigate. This can make it difficult to secure convictions.
    • Political Interference: The ED has been accused of political interference in the past. This can make it difficult for the agency to operate independently and impartially.
    • Legal Loopholes: The ED faces legal hurdles in prosecuting offenders, especially those who are outside India or have multiple citizenships. Some provisions of the PMLA also allow offenders to escape investigations by challenging the attachment of their properties.
    • Lack of Cooperation from Foreign Jurisdictions: The ED often faces challenges in obtaining cooperation from foreign jurisdictions in its investigations. This is because many countries have strict privacy laws that make it difficult for the ED to obtain information about bank accounts and other financial transactions.

    To enhance the performance of the ED, the following measures can be taken:

    • Increased funding
    • Better coordination with other law enforcement agencies
    • Streamlining of the investigation process
    • Improve training
    • Reduce Legal complications
    • Protection of ED officers from political interference
    • Greater cooperation from foreign jurisdictions


    The ED is an important law enforcement agency that plays a vital role in combating economic crimes. With the right support, the ED can be even more effective in protecting the Indian economy from criminals.

    Despite several challenges, the ED has made significant progress in combating economic crimes in India. The agency has investigated and prosecuted a number of high-profile cases, and it has recovered a significant amount of money from economic offenders. With the right support, the ED can be even more effective in protecting the Indian economy from criminals.

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