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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. “The ideas for creating a system of education should be aimed at promoting international co-operation and creating global citizens”. What do you understand by this statement in the present-day scenario? Explain. (250 words).

    11 Jun, 2020 GS Paper 4 Theoretical Questions


    • Briefly explain the importance of education as a means to promote international cooperation.
    • Discuss different ways in which how education could play a key role in creating global citizens. Some of these dimensions could include topics such as conflict resolution, disaster management of pandemic like Covid19 crisis and promotion of globalisation etc.
    • Discuss the provisions in the Indian Constitution with respect to international cooperation.
    • Summarize your answer and suggest some measures to reform the existing education system to promote international cooperation.


    • According to Rabindranath Tagore, the highest aim of education is not to give information but make our life in harmony with all existence. The promotion of international cooperation and creation of global citizens requires an education system that promotes the spirit of tolerance, peace, equality and cooperation.
    • Right education is the cornerstone to resolve contemporary global issues like pandemic crisis, economic slowdown, environmental degradation, unemployment, illiteracy, poverty, human rights abuse, gender disparity and even spread of misinformation threatening peace.


    Education and Global citizens

    • A global citizen has a trans national cooperative attitude and one who cherishes the values of equality, fairness and sustainability. In cultivation of such attitudes, development of the idea of peaceful coexistence in the value system of education is vital for dealing with current global issues.
    • Dealing with the contemporary global challenges requires mutual cooperation among citizens, nations and international bodies and organisations. Among these stakeholders the efficacy of citizens holds its key in right education.

    Key Challenges

    • Dealing with global disasters: In the wake of Covid-19 pandemic, it is necessary that the education system motivates the citizens to adopt a naturally empathetic attitude towards the people and countries severely affected by it.
      • This also entails the responsibility of educating the masses about the precautions and survival strategies in such a pandemic.
    • Environment Conservation: Education systems which are sensitive to environmental issues inspire countries, cities and regions, businesses and civil society members across the world to take action to accelerate cooperative climate action in support of the environment conservation programs such as the Global Climate Action Agenda.
    • Inclusive development under globalisation: Securing socio- economic integration and development of all the people of the world through a free flow of goods, services, information, knowledge and people across all boundaries cannot become a reality without an education system targeting Inclusive development.
    • Human rights violations: Intolerance and ignorance is the root cause of conflict and insecurity which, in turn, results in violations of human rights. Education that can instil the spirit of non violence is necessary in bringing sustainable peace especially in terrorism affected areas.
    • Attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): SDGs also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.
      • SDG 4 aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning for all.

    Indian Scenario

    • The values of Indian education system such as dignity, truthfulness, fairness and responsibility complement the directive principle enshrined in Article 51 (promotion of international peace and security) of the Indian Constitution.
    • However on the level of behavioural change and transformation of Indian citizens to global citizens, appropriate educational reforms are needed as envisaged under Draft Education policy 2020.
    • Assimilating the views of national luminaries like Rabindranath Tagore, who believed the one of the main objectives of education is to make pupils a global citizen and promote universal brotherhood.
      • Agent of Change: The India diaspora has been successful agents of change across the globe in the field of technology (by leading the largest IT companies) , finance, culture (in literature and in various art forms) because universal brotherhood (vasudeva kutumbakam) has been one of the main ethos of Indian education system since ancient times that enables Indian citizens to assimilate themselves in different cultures.


    • Thus education holds a major stake in resolving international challenges such as boundary conflict, cyber crimes, food security, distress migration and biodiversity conservation by bringing about attitudinal changes among people and making them global citizens.
    • Multicultural education is one solution that could bring rationality by incorporating the histories, texts, values, beliefs, and perspectives of people from different cultural backgrounds.
    • There is an urgent need for prospective reforms such as eliminating illiteracy universally, increasing gender sensitivity,and rationalization of the education system.

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