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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Examine the  challenges faced by India’s education system in  providing quality education to all its citizens.(250 Words) 

    13 Mar, 2023 GS Paper 1 Indian Society


    • Start your answer by briefly stating the present data facts related to education in India.
    • Discuss various challenges faced by India’s education system.
    • Conclude by suggesting measures to improve the education system in India.


    • Education is an essential tool for the growth and development of a country. It plays a critical role in building a strong and prosperous society. However, India, being a developing country, faces numerous challenges in providing quality education to all its citizens.
      • According to UNESCO, India has the highest number of children out of school globally, with an estimated 17 million children between the ages of 6-14 still out of school.


    • Challenges Faced by India’s Education System:
      • Inadequate infrastructure: One of the major challenges faced by India's education system is the inadequate infrastructure. Most of the schools in rural areas lack basic facilities such as proper classrooms, furniture, and clean drinking water. This creates a hostile environment for students and affects their learning outcomes.
        • As per survey conducted by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) in 2016 found that around 30% of schools in India do not have separate toilets for girls.
      • Shortage of trained teachers: Another significant challenge is the shortage of trained teachers in India. Many schools in rural areas do not have enough qualified teachers to teach subjects such as science and mathematics, which are critical for the students' future.
      • Quality of education: Although India has made significant progress in improving access to education, the quality of education is still a significant challenge. Many schools in India focus on rote learning, and the curriculum does not include life skills and practical knowledge.
        • In a survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), it was found that around 43% of students in rural India and 34% of students in urban India cannot read and write simple sentences in their language.
      • Low enrollment rate: Despite the government's efforts to improve access to education, the enrollment rate in schools in India is still low, particularly for girls.
        • According to a report by the MHRD, the gross enrollment ratio (GER) in higher education in India is only 26.3%, which is lower than the average GER of developing countries (36%).
      • Inequality in education: Inequality in education is another significant challenge faced by India's education system.
        • Students from marginalized communities such as Dalits and tribal communities face discrimination and are not provided with the same opportunities as students from privileged backgrounds.
          • According to a study conducted by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), students from marginalized communities face discrimination and are often subjected to physical and verbal abuse in schools.
      • Technological Divide: The digital divide is another challenge faced by India's education system. While the use of technology can enhance the quality of education, many students in rural areas do not have access to computers and the internet.


    • Measures to Improve the Education System in India:
      • Increase Government Spending on Education: The government needs to increase its spending on education to ensure that all children have access to quality education.
        • This will involve increasing the budget allocation for education and ensuring that the funds are used effectively to improve the quality of education.
      • Improve Teacher Training and Salaries: To address the shortage of qualified teachers, the government needs to provide better training and support for teachers.
        • Additionally, teacher salaries should be increased to motivate and retain qualified teachers.
      • Expand Access to Education: To expand access to education, the government needs to improve infrastructure in rural areas and ensure that all children have access to schools.
        • This can be achieved by building more schools and improving transport infrastructure to ensure that children can travel to school safely.
      • Focus on Quality of Education: To improve the quality of education, the government needs to shift its focus from rote learning to experiential learning, critical thinking, and holistic development of students.
        • This can be achieved by incorporating more practical and hands-on learning experiences into the curriculum.
      • Address Gender Inequality: To address gender inequality in education, the government needs to provide incentives for families to send their daughters to school.
        • Additionally, the government needs to ensure that there are adequate facilities for girls in schools, such as separate toilets and changing rooms.
      • Promote the Use of Technology: To bridge the technological divide in education, the government needs to promote the use of technology in schools.
        • This can be achieved by providing computers and internet access to schools in rural areas and training teachers on how to incorporate technology into the curriculum.

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