Online Courses (English)
This just in:

State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. “The Himalayas are not only India's natural borders but also a major source of water for India's rivers”. In the light of this statement discuss the importance of the Himalayan region for India and the challenges in preserving its ecology and environment. (150 words)

    20 Feb, 2023 GS Paper 1 Geography


    • Start your answer by briefly discussing the importance of Himalayan region.
    • Discuss the challenges faced in preserving its ecology and environment and suggest some measures to improve this situation.
    • Conclude accordingly.


    • Importance of the Himalayan Region for India:
      • The Himalayan region is of significant importance for India, as it provides a range of ecological, environmental, and economic benefits. The Himalayas are the source of water for several major rivers in India, including the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus.
        • These rivers provide water for agriculture, industries, and human settlements, making them a critical resource for the country. According to a report by the World Bank, around 80% of India's water needs are met by the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers.
        • In addition, the rivers are also home to several aquatic species and support the livelihoods of millions of people living in the region.
          • These species are crucial for maintaining the ecological balance of the region and play an important role in the food chain.


    • Challenges in preserving the ecology and environment of the Himalayan region:
      • Climate Change: The Himalayan glaciers are melting at an alarming rate due to rising temperatures, which could result in significant changes to the region's water supply.
        • It could lead to floods, landslides, and other natural disasters, affecting the local communities and ecosystems.
      • Rapid Urbanization and Industrialization: It has resulted in the destruction of natural habitats, deforestation, and soil erosion. The construction of roads, dams, and other infrastructure projects has also had a significant impact on the region's environment, leading to soil erosion, flooding, and other environmental issues.
      • Unsustainable Tourism: The Himalayan region attracts millions of tourists every year, who come to engage in adventure activities, including trekking, mountaineering, and skiing.
        • However, the rapid growth of tourism has led to several environmental and ecological issues, including deforestation, soil erosion, and waste management problems.
        • Furthermore, tourism has also led to the exploitation of natural resources and the displacement of local communities, leading to socio-economic and cultural issues.
      • Lack of Awareness and Education: It is a significant challenge in preserving the ecology and environment of the Himalayan region. Many local communities living in the region are unaware of the importance of preserving the natural resources, leading to unsustainable practices such as overgrazing and hunting.
        • Lack of education and awareness also affects policymakers, who may not prioritize environmental conservation due to a lack of understanding of the consequences of environmental degradation.
    • Measures to Improve Situation:
      • Promoting Sustainable Tourism: There is need to promote sustainable tourism in the Himalayan region by encouraging eco-tourism and promoting Responsible Travel Practices.
        • This can be done by incentivizing tourism operators who follow sustainable practices, educating tourists on responsible travel, and developing policies that prioritize environmental conservation.
      • Encouraging Afforestation: The government can encourage afforestation in the Himalayan region by providing incentives to local communities to plant trees and protect forests.
      • Developing Renewable Energy Sources: The government can promote the development of renewable energy sources in the Himalayan region, such as solar, wind, and hydropower, to reduce dependence on non-renewable energy sources.
        • This can help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the effects of climate change.
      • Strengthening Environmental Regulations: The need of the hour is to strengthen environmental regulations and enforce them effectively to protect the region's natural resources, like by setting up monitoring systems, implementing penalties for violations, and promoting transparency in decision-making.


    • Preserving the ecology and environment of the Himalayan region in India requires the collaboration of various stakeholders, including policymakers, local communities, and the tourism industry, to ensure that the region's natural resources are protected and preserved for future generations.
      • The challenges facing the region require innovative solutions and sustainable practices to ensure the long-term sustainability of the region's ecological and environmental systems.

    To get PDF version, Please click on "Print PDF" button.

    Print PDF
SMS Alerts
Share Page