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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. What are the main challenges facing the LGBTQ+ community in terms of social justice and how can they be addressed? (250 words)

    31 Jan, 2023 GS Paper 2 Social Justice


    • Start your answer by discussing the challenges faced by LGBTQ+ community in India.
    • Suggest some measures to address these challenges.
    • Conclude accordingly.


    • LGBTQ+ is an umbrella term used to refer to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex. LGBTQI+ people represent a subset of individuals among the broader category of sexual and gender diverse individuals. Sexual orientation, gender identity and expression (SOGIE) is diverse and spans cultures across the world.


    • The LGBTQ+ community in India has faced a long and arduous journey in their pursuit of social justice and equal rights. Despite India's rich cultural and historical diversity, the community still faces numerous challenges and obstacles in their everyday lives. The main challenges faced by the LGBTQ+ community in India in terms of social justice can be broadly categorized into areas like:
      • Discriminatory Social Attitudes: They face discrimination and stigma from society, which is often perpetuated by cultural norms, values, and religious beliefs. This leads to a lack of acceptance and understanding of the LGBTQ+ community, which further exacerbates the challenges they face.
      • Health Inequalities: There are significant health inequalities, including barriers to accessing healthcare services. The stigma and discrimination associated with their sexual orientation and gender identity often prevent them from seeking necessary medical treatment and care.
      • Lack of Employment Opportunities: The LGBTQ+ community in India faces significant barriers to accessing employment opportunities, as they are often discriminated against in the workplace due to their sexual orientation and gender identity. This further exacerbates the financial and social inequalities they face.
      • Lack of education: The LGBTQ+ community faces a lack of adequate educational resources and support, which often leads to limited access to education and limited opportunities to develop their skills and abilities.
    • Possible Solutions to Address the Challenges:
      • Educational Programs: The government and civil society organizations should work together to create educational programs that promote understanding and acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community. These programs should be designed to raise awareness of the challenges faced by the LGBTQ+ community and encourage people to support their rights and dignity.
      • Health Services: The government should work to ensure that healthcare services are accessible and inclusive for the LGBTQ+ community. This includes providing training for healthcare providers on how to provide appropriate and respectful care for LGBTQ+ patients.
      • Employment Opportunities: The government should implement policies and programs to promote employment opportunities for the LGBTQ+ community. This includes creating initiatives to support the employment of LGBTQ+ individuals and addressing discrimination in the workplace.
      • Support Services: The government and civil society organizations should work to establish support services for the LGBTQ+ community, including counseling and mental health services.
        • These services can help to reduce the stigma and discrimination faced by the LGBTQ+ community and provide them with the support they need to address the challenges they face.
    • Related Government initiatives:
      • National Health Policy 2017: The policy recognizes the health needs of transgender persons and calls for the provision of comprehensive health care services for them, including gender reassignment surgeries.
      • National Council for Transgender Persons: This council was set up to advise the central and state governments on the policy, legislative and administrative matters relating to transgender persons.
      • Swabhiman Scheme: This scheme was launched by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment in 2015 to provide support to transgender persons in the areas of education, livelihood, health, and social security.


    The LGBTQ+ community in India faces numerous challenges therefore, the government and civil society organizations can work together to address these challenges through educational programs, accessible healthcare services, employment opportunities, and support services.

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