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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. How do organizations and institutions address ethical challenges, such as corruption and discrimination? (150 words)

    05 Jan, 2023 GS Paper 4 Theoretical Questions


    • Start your answer by describing ethical challenges such as corruption and discrimination in the organization and institutions.
    • Discuss measures to tackle these ethical challenges.
    • Conclude accordingly.


    • Ethical challenges are situations that require a person or organization to choose between two or more actions that may be in conflict with each other, or that may be perceived as right or wrong, fair or unfair.
    • Corruption and discrimination are two major ethical challenges that organizations and institutions must address, further, they could be described as follows:
      • Corruption: It refers to the use of power, influence, or position for personal gain.
        • It can take many forms, including bribery, and nepotism. Corruption is a major problem in many countries, as it undermines the integrity of institutions and erodes public trust.
        • It can also have negative economic consequences, as it can distort markets and discourage investment.
      • Discrimination: It refers to the unfair treatment of individuals or groups based on their race, ethnicity, gender, religion, or other characteristics.
        • It is a major ethical challenge because it can lead to social and economic inequality and can harm the well-being of individuals and communities.


    • Organizations and institutions can take the following measures to address ethical challenges such as corruption and discrimination:
      • Code of Conduct and Code of Ethics: One important approach is to establish clear codes of conduct and ethical guidelines that outline expected behaviors and values, and to provide training and education on these guidelines to ensure that all members of the organization are aware of and adhere to them.
        • Therefore, an organization should define an ethical code of conduct by establishing a set of principles that guide its programs, policies, and decisions.
        • This can help to establish a culture of integrity and ethical behavior within the organization, which can be an important deterrent to unethical practices such as corruption.
      • Address Unethical Behaviors: Another approach is to establish systems for reporting and addressing unethical behavior, such as anonymous reporting hotlines or ombuds offices, which allow employees to report concerns or incidents without fear of retaliation.
        • As this would create a safe and open environment in which employees feel comfortable raising concerns about unethical practices, which can help to prevent such practices from occurring or escalating.
      • Just investigation for Unethical Behavior: It is also important for organizations to have clear policies and procedures in place for investigating and addressing allegations of unethical behavior, and to hold those who engage in such behavior accountable through disciplinary measures or other penalties.
        • This can serve as a deterrent to unethical behavior and can help to create a culture of integrity and responsibility within the organization.
      • Promote Ethical Behavior: In addition, organizations may also seek to promote ethical behavior by establishing a culture of transparency, accountability, and integrity, and by setting a good example through the actions and decisions of senior leaders and decision-makers.
        • This can involve regularly communicating with employees about the organization's values and expectations and demonstrating a commitment to ethical behavior through the decisions that are made and the actions that are taken.
      • Promote Positive Work Culture: In order to effectively address ethical challenges, it is also important for organizations to have strong leadership and a positive corporate culture that promotes ethical behavior.
        • This can involve empowering employees to speak up about concerns and rewarding those who demonstrate ethical behavior. By creating a positive and supportive work environment, organizations can encourage employees to make ethical decisions and to report unethical behavior when it occurs.


    • To address the challenges of corruption and discrimination, organizations and institutions can implement a variety of measures, including anti-corruption policies, diversity and inclusion initiatives, and training programs to promote ethical behavior.
    • It is also important for leaders to set a good example and to hold individuals accountable for unethical behavior. By addressing these challenges, organizations and institutions can create a more ethical and fair society.

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