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Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. Turkish renaissance guided by Kemal Pasha revolutionized the Turkish life a many levels. Amplify. (250 words)

    10 Oct, 2022 GS Paper 1 History


    • Start your answer by giving a brief about Turkish Renaissance.
    • Discuss various measures taken by Kemal Pasha.
    • Conclude accordingly.


    • Mustafa Kamal Ataturk (1881-1938) was regarded as the most important figure for the modernizing process of the Turkish nation. Through his nationalist ideology and modern political reforms, Kemal was able to maintain the independence of Turkey from the direct rule of the Western countries.
    • As, Turkey was Defeated in World War I, and was forced to sign the treaty of Sevres (August 10, 1920) but Kemal Pasha opposed it vehemently. He aroused strong public opinion against it and the Allied nations were forced to sign another treaty with Turkey- The Treaty of Lausanne- on July 24, 1923, through which Turkey received most of what she had been forced to cede earlier. Constantinople, Thrace and Anatolia remained with Turkey.
    • The Allies gave up the claim for war indemnity. Restrictions on the army, navy and airforce were lifted. Kemal Pasha organized a national assembly and declared an independent state in Anatolia with Ankara as its capital. The Sultan was dethroned. Kemal Pasha was made President of the Republic of Turkey.
    • He transformed Turkey into a strong and modern state based on western civilization. He was adorned with the title of Ataturk or the father of modern Turkey.
    • Further, for the reconstruction of the war debilitated Turkey the Ataturk adopted the following six principles -
      • Republicanism: The framework replaced the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman dynasty with the rule of law.
      • Nationalism: It is a political ideology that promotes and glorifies the Turkish people, as either a national, ethnic, or linguistic group.
      • Equality: Education was made free, co-educational and secular from primary school through to post-graduate level education, and primary school was made compulsory. A particular emphasis was put on the education of girls and women, introduced laws that would see women enjoy rights equal to men, give them the right to vote and to be elected to parliament.
      • Controlled Economy: State introduced planned economy.
      • Secularism: There was complete separation of government and religion, educational institutions and the army were also separated from politics, religious schools were closed down, religion became a matter of personal conscience, and public education was secularised.
      • Reformism: He reformed marriage (abolishing polygamy) and family relations (notably equal rights for women in divorce, custody, and inheritance).


    Turkey was regarded as the first Muslims country that declared as a secular state. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk who is recalled as the father of the nation was responsible for the establishment of modern Turkey. His revolutions and reforms have brought Turkey into a new phase of development.

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