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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. QUAD is the new reality of the modern world, and it comes with both Pros and cons for India. (150 Words)

    04 Oct, 2022 GS Paper 2 International Relations


    • Start your answer by giving a brief about QUAD.
    • Discuss the Opportunities for India Under QUAD Arrangement.
    • Discuss the issues with the QUAD.
    • Conclude your answer by giving a way forward.


    QUAD is the grouping of four democracies –India, Australia, the US, and Japan. All four nations find a common ground of being democratic nations and support the common interest of unhindered maritime trade and security. It aims to ensure and support a “free, open and prosperous” Indo-Pacific region.

    • The idea of QUAD was first mooted by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2007 but it could not materialize. Finally in 2017, India, Australia, the US and Japan, came together and formed this “quadrilateral” coalition and QUAD emerged as a new reality.

    Main Body

    Opportunities for India Under QUAD Arrangement

    • Multilateral Opportunities: The QUAD arrangement gives India an opportunity to work multilaterally on all kinds of initiatives that can help create, a free and open Indo-Pacific region.
    • Defense Cooperation: India will get benefitted from defense technology transfers from the QUAD members which will help India to emerge as Self-reliant in defense manufacturing and India can emerge as a major defense supplier.
    • Countering China: A huge chunk of Chinese trade happens via the Indian oceanic routes that pass through maritime chokepoints. In the event of any Chinese aggression on borders, India by cooperating with QUAD countries can potentially disrupt Chinese trade.
    • Emerging as a Net Security Provider: India, located right at the centre of the Indo-Pacific geopolitical imagination, can realise the vision of a ‘broader Asia’ that can extend its influence away from geographical boundaries. Further, India with QUAD countries can check imperialist policies of China in Indian ocean region and ensure Security and growth for all in the region.

    Issues Related to QUAD

    • Undefined Vision: Although there is potential for cooperation, the QUAD remains a mechanism without a defined strategic mission.
    • Maritime Dominated: The entire focus on the Indo-Pacific makes the QUAD a maritime, rather than a land-based grouping, raising questions whether the cooperation extends to the Asia-Pacific and Eurasian regions.
    • India’s Aversion of Alliance System: The fact that India is the only member that is averse to a treaty alliance system, has slowed down the progress of building a stronger Quadrilateral engagement.

    Way Forward

    • The QUAD nations need to better explain the Indo-Pacific Vision in an overarching framework with the objective of advancing everyone’s economic and security interests.
    • India has many other partners in the Indo-Pacific; therefore, India should pitch for countries like Indonesia, Singapore to be invited to join in the future.
    • India should develop a comprehensive vision on the Indo-Pacific which would ideate on the current and future maritime challenges, consolidate its military and non-military tools, engage its strategic partners.

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