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State PCS

Mains Practice Questions

  • Q. ‘Even after 75 years of independence, women’s representation in Lok Sabha has not increased much.’ Discuss the reasons and suggest measures to increase women representation in Parliament.

    14 Jan, 2022 GS Paper 2 Polity & Governance


    • Start with emphasizing the situation of women in Indian parliament, give some data.
    • Discuss the reason for this dismal performance.
    • Suggest measures to increase women representation in Parliament.
    • Conclude suitably.


    As per the data compiled by the Inter-Parliamentary Union, of which India is a member, women represent 14.44% of the total members of the Lok Sabha.

    • As per the latest Election Commission of India (ECI) data:
    • As of October 2021, Women represent 10.5% of the total members of the Parliament.
    • The scenario for women Members of Legislative Assemblies (MLAs) across all state assemblies in India is even worse, with the national average being a pitiable 9%.
    • In the last 75 years of independence, women’s representation in Lok Sabha has not even increased by 10%.

    Reasons for Low Representation

    • Gender stereotypes: The role of managing household activities has been traditionally assigned to women.
    • Competition: Politics, like any other field, is a field of competition. At the end of the day, Women politicians are their competition as well.
    • Lack of Political Education: Education influences the social mobility of women. Formal education such as provided at educational institutions create opportunities for leadership, and impart leadership essential skills.
      • Because of a lack of understanding of politics, they do not know about their basic and political rights.
    • Work and Family: Uneven distribution of family care responsibilities means that women spend far more time than men in home- and child-care.
      • A woman not only has to give her time and effort at time of pregnancy and childbirth, but it continues till the child is dependent on parents for care.
    • Lack of Political Networks: The lack of openness in political decision-making and undemocratic internal processes pose a challenge for all newcomers, but particularly for women as they tend to lack insider knowledge or political networks.
    • Lack of Resources: Because of their low proportion in the inner political party structure of India, women fail to gather resources and support for nurturing their political constituencies.
      • Women do not get adequate financial support from the political parties to contest the elections.
    • Social Conditioning: They have to accept the dictates imposed on them and bear the burden of society.
      • Public attitudes not only determine how many female candidates win a general election but also directly and indirectly how many are considered and nominated for office.
    • Unfriendly Environment: Overall political parties’ environment too is not women-friendly, they have to struggle hard and face multi-dimensional issues to create space for them in the party.
      • There has been increasing violence in politics. A significant rise in criminalization, corruption, insecurity has driven women out of the political arena..

    Way Forward

    • Passage of Women’s Reservation Bill: All political parties have to reach a consensus and ensure the passage of the Women's Reservation Bill, which calls for reserving 33 percent of seats in Parliament and all state legislative assemblies for women.
    • Promoting local bodies female lawmakers on State level: There is a pool of women out there who have been sarpanches, and members of local bodies, with experience of governance at the local level over a period of three decades.
      • They are waiting to play a larger role in state assemblies and in Parliament.
    • Women Quotas in political parties: The Gill formula: There is a need to implement the proposal of the Election Commission of India (ECI) to make it mandatory for the recognized political parties to ensure putting of minimum agreed percentage for women in State Assembly and Parliamentary elections, so as to allow them to retain the recognition with the Election Commission as political parties.
    • Promoting Inner party democracy: A truly democratic political party in which the various positions like president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer etc are filled by the election process, will give a fair chance to all female members of the party.
    • Deconstructing stereotypes: Society needs to deconstruct the stereotype of women as limited to household activities only.
      • It is important for all institutions (state, family and community) to respond to women’s specific needs such as bridging gaps in education, renegotiating gender roles, the gender division of labor and addressing biased attitudes.

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