World Diabetes Day 2019
- 14 Nov 2019
- 3 min read
Why in News
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has launched an initiative to expand access to affordable insulin on the occasion of World Diabetes Day (14th November).
- This year’s theme for World Diabetes Day is “Family and Diabetes”.
- 14th November marks the birthday of Sir Frederick Banting, who co-discovered insulin along with Charles Best in 1922.
- The burden of disease:
- More than 420 million people worldwide affected by diabetes.
- China has the highest number of patients (11.43 cr.) followed by India (7.29 cr.) in 2017.
- Issues related to treatment:
- High costs of insulin
- Insufficient essential medicines and technologies
- Steps taken by Government of India:
- India’s National Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) Target is to prevent the rise in obesity and diabetes prevalence.
- National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancers, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) in 2010 to provide support for diagnosis and cost-effective treatment at various levels of health care.
Diabetes is a Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar, or glucose), or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
- Type I diabetes: It is also known as juvenile diabetes (as it mostly affects children of age 14-16 years), this type occurs when the body fails to produce sufficient insulin. People with type I diabetes are insulin-dependent, which means they must take artificial insulin daily to stay alive.
- Type 2 diabetes: It affects the way the body uses insulin. While the body still makes insulin, unlike in type I, the cells in the body do not respond to it as effectively as they once did.
- The population with 45 and above age group is the most affected with it.
- This is the most common type of diabetes and it has strong links with obesity.
- Gestational diabetes: This type occurs in women during pregnancy when the body sometimes becomes less sensitive to insulin. Gestational diabetes does not occur in all women and usually resolves after giving birth.
- Diabetes affects the five major organs namely, Kidney, Heart, Blood vessels, Nervous System, and Eyes (retina).
- The factors responsible for the increase in diabetes are an unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, harmful use of alcohol, overweight/obesity, tobacco use, etc.