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Non-Communicable Diseases in India

  • 03 Jul 2019
  • 3 min read
  • According to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) report titled “India: Health of the Nation’s States”, contribution of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) to total death in the Country was 61.8% in 2016, as compared to 37.9% in 1990.
  • Some examples of common NCDs, i.e. diabetes, hypertension and cancers (Oral, Breast and Cervical cancer) are on the rise in India.
  • Risk factors for NCDs inter alia include ageing, unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high cholesterol and overweight
  • Also In the States of Kerala, Goa and Tamil Nadu, due to epidemiological transition, fewer deaths are recorded for communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases, thereby raising the share of NCDs in total deaths

Epidemiologic Transition

  • The epidemiologic transition is that process by which the pattern of mortality and disease is transformed from one of high mortality among infants and children to one of degenerative and man-made diseases (such as those attributed to smoking) affecting principally the elderly.
  • Though public health is a State subject, Central Government supplements the efforts of the State Governments. For example:
    • National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) is being implemented under the National Health Mission (NHM).
      • The objectives of the programme include health promotion activities and opportunistic screening for common Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) including cancer
      • Key components of population-based screening include community-based risk assessment, screening, referral, and follow up of all individuals of 30 years and above for common NCDs
      • The initiative will help in early diagnosis and will generate awareness on risk factors of NCDs.
    • Citing growing occurrence of cancer in India, the Union government sought to enhance the facilities for tertiary care of cancer.
      • The Central Government is implementing Strengthening of Tertiary Care Cancer facilities scheme to support setting up of State Cancer Institutes (SCI) and Tertiary Care Centres (TCCC) in different parts of the country.
      • Oncology in its various aspects has a focus in case of new AIIMS and many upgraded institutions under Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY).
      • Affordable Medicines and Reliable Implants for Treatment (AMRIT) Deendayal outlets have been opened at 159 Institutions/Hospitals with an objective to make available Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases drugs and implants at discounted prices to the patients.
      • Jan Aushadhi stores are set up by the Department of Pharmaceuticals to provide generic medicines at affordable prices.
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