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Indian History

Kartavya Path

  • 09 Sep 2022
  • 9 min read

For Prelims: Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Kartavya Path, Central Vista.

For Mains: Kartavya Path and its Significance, History of Rajpath.

Why in News?

The Prime Minister inaugurated the 'Kartavya Path' and unveiled the statue of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose at India Gate.

What are Key Inaugurations?

  • Kartavya Path symbolizes a shift from erstwhile Rajpath being an icon of power to Kartavya Path being an example of public ownership and empowerment.
  • The statue of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose made of granite, is a fitting tribute to the immense contribution of Netaji to our freedom struggle, and would be a symbol of the country’s indebtedness to him.
    • Crafted by Shri Arun Yogiraj, who was the main sculptor, the 28 feet tall statue has been carved from a monolithic granite stone and weighs 65 MT.
  • These steps are in line with Prime Minister’s second ‘Panch Pran’ pledged during 75th Independence Day 2022, for New India in Amrit Kaal: ‘remove any trace of colonial mindset’.

What is the Need for Revamping Rajpath?

  • Over the years, Rajpath and adjoining areas of the Central Vista Avenue had been witnessing pressure of increasing traffic of visitors, putting stress on its infrastructure.
    • Central Vista Avenue is part of the government’s ambitious Central Vista redevelopment project.
  • It lacked basic amenities like public toilets, drinking water, street furniture and adequate parking space.
  • Further, there was inadequate signage, poor maintenance of water features and haphazard parking.
  • Also, a need was felt to organise the Republic Day parade and other National events in a less disruptive manner with minimal restrictions on public movement.
  • The redevelopment has been done bearing these concerns in mind while also ensuring the integrity and continuity of architectural character.

What is the Brief History of Rajpath?

  • Called Kingsway during British rule, the three-km stretch was built as a ceremonial boulevard by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker, the architects of New Delhi, more than a hundred years ago.
  • The capital of the Raj moved to New Delhi from Calcutta in 1911, and construction continued for several years thereafter.
  • Lutyens conceptualised the modern imperial city centred around a “ceremonial axis”, which was named Kingsway in honour of the then Emperor of India, George V, who visited Delhi during the Durbar of 1911, where he formally proclaimed the decision to move the capital.
    • The nomenclature followed that of the Kingsway in London, an arterial road built in 1905, which was named in honour of King Edward VII, the father of George V.
  • Following Independence in 1947, the road was given its Hindi name, Rajpath, on which the Republic Day parades took place over the decades that followed.

What is the Kartavya Path and its Significance?

  • The entire stretch and the area from the Netaji statue under the Grand Canopy to the Rashtrapati Bhavan will be known as Kartavya Path.
  • Kartavya Path includes the erstwhile “Rajpath and Central Vista lawns”.
  • Kartavya Path will exhibit landscapes, lawns with walkways, added green spaces, refurbished canals, amenity blocks, improved signages and vending kiosks.
  • It also includes a number of sustainability features like solid waste management, storm-water management, recycling of used water, rainwater harvesting, water conservation and energy efficient lighting systems, among others.
  • The revamped and expanded lawns on both sides of the erstwhile Rajpath are part of the larger Central Vista project, where a new triangular Parliament building, along with the Central Secretariat and several other government offices, are being rebuilt.

What are the Key Points Related to Subhash Chandra Bose?

  • Birth:
    • Subhas Chandra Bose was born on 23rd January 1897, in Cuttack, Orissa Division, Bengal Province, to Prabhavati Dutt Bose and Janakinath Bose.

  • Education and Early Life:
    • In 1919, he had cleared the Indian Civil Services (ICS) examination. Bose, however, resigned later.
    • He was highly influenced by Vivekananda's teachings and considered him as his spiritual Guru.
    • His political mentor was Chittaranjan Das.
      • He worked as the editor for Das’s newspaper–Forward, and later started his own newspaper, Swaraj.
  • Association with Congress:
    • He stood for unqualified swaraj (independence), and opposed the Motilal Nehru Report which spoke for dominion status for India.
    • He actively participated in the Salt Satyagraha of 1930 and vehemently opposed the suspension of the Civil Disobedience Movement and signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931.
    • In the 1930s, he was closely associated with left politics in Congress along with Jawaharlal Nehru and M.N. Roy.
    • Bose won the congress presidential elections at Haripura in 1938.
    • Again in 1939 at Tripuri, he won the presidential elections against Gandhi's candidate Pattabhi Sitarammayya. Due to ideological differences with Gandhi, Bose resigned and left congress. Rajendra Prasad was appointed in his place.
    • He founded a new party, 'the Forward Bloc'. The purpose was to consolidate the political left and major support base in his home state Bengal.
  • Indian National Army:
    • He reached Japanese-controlled Singapore from Germany in July 1943, issued from there his famous call, ‘Delhi Chalo’, and announced the formation of the Azad Hind Government and the Indian National Army on 21st October 1943.
    • The INA was first formed under Mohan Singh and Japanese Major Iwaichi Fujiwara and comprised Indian prisoners of war of the British-Indian Army captured by Japan in the Malayan (present-day Malaysia) campaign and at Singapore.
    • The INA included both the Indian prisoners of war from Singapore and Indian civilians in South-East Asia. It's strength grew to 50,000.
    • The INA fought allied forces in 1944 inside the borders of India in Imphal and in Burma.
    • In November 1945, a British move to put the INA men on trial immediately sparked massive demonstrations all over the country.
  • Death:
    • He is said to have died in 1945 when his plane crashed in Taiwan. However, there are still many conspiracy theories regarding his death.

UPSC Civil Services Examination, Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Prelims

Q. During the Indian Freedom Struggle, who of the following raised an army called ‘Free Indian Legion’? (2008)

(a) Lala Hardayal
(b) Rashbehari Bose
(c) Subhas Chandra Bose
(d) V.D. Savarkar

Ans: (c)

Exp:

  • The Free Indian Legion was an infantry regiment formed by Indian volunteers. The legion was made up of Indian prisoners of wars and expatriates in Europe.
  • The Indian Independence leader, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose formed this legion with the help of German Government to fight against the British. The legion is also known as “Tiger Legion“.
  • Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer.

Mains

Q. In what ways did the naval mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India? (2014)

Source: TOI

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