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Governance

Inclusion of Communities in Jammu and Kashmir's Scheduled Tribes List

  • 03 Aug 2023
  • 7 min read

Source: IE

Why in News?

The Indian government has introduced the Constitution (Jammu and Kashmir) Scheduled Tribes Order (Amendment) Bill, 2023, aiming to include four communities in the Scheduled Tribes (ST) list in Jammu and Kashmir.

  • The proposed inclusion of the "Gadda Brahmin," "Koli," "Paddari Tribe," and "Pahari Ethnic Group" has sparked apprehensions regarding the distribution of reservation benefits.

What is the Process and Criteria of Inclusion in the ST List ?

  • Criteria for Inclusion in the Scheduled List: Determining whether a community qualifies as a Scheduled Tribe is based on several criteria, including:
    • Ethnological Traits: The community's distinct and identifiable ethnological traits are considered to establish its tribal identity.
    • Traditional Characteristics: Traditional practices, customs, and way of life are examined to assess the community's adherence to tribal culture.
    • Distinctive Culture: The presence of a unique and distinctive culture that sets the community apart from other groups.
    • Geographical Isolation: The community's geographical isolation is taken into account to assess its historic and continuous presence in specific regions.
    • Backwardness: Socio-economic backwardness is considered to evaluate the level of disadvantage faced by the community.
  • Process of Adding a Community to the ST List:
    • The process initiates at the State or Union Territory level, where the concerned government or administration recommends the inclusion of a specific community.
    • The proposal is sent to the Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs for examination and further deliberations.
    • After this, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, through its own deliberations, examines the proposal, and sends it to the Registrar General of India (RGI).
    • The inclusion of any community in the Scheduled Tribes list takes effect only after the President assents to a Bill that amends the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950, following its passage in both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

What is the Status of Scheduled Tribes in India?

UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ)

Q. Consider the following pairs: (2013)

Tribe State
1. Limboo (Limbu) Sikkim
2. Karbi Himachal Pradesh
3. Dongaria Kondh Odisha
4. Bonda Tamil Nadu

 Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (a)

Q. The provisions in Fifth Schedule and Sixth Schedule in the Constitution of India are made in order to (2015)

(a) protect the interests of Scheduled Tribes
(b) determine the boundaries between States
(c) determine the powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats
(d) protect the interests of all the border States

Ans: (a)


Mains:

Q. What are the two major legal initiatives by the State since Independence addressing discrimination against Scheduled Tribes (STs)? (2017)

Q. Why are the tribals in India referred to as ‘the Scheduled Tribes’? Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their upliftment. (2016)

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