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Tribal Development Report 2022

  • 02 Dec 2022
  • 6 min read

For Prelims: Tribal Development Report 2022, Scheduled Tribe, Eklavya Model Residential Schools, TRIFED.

For Mains: Recent Government Initiatives Related to Tribes.

Why in News?

Recently, the Tribal Development Report 2022 was launched by the Bharat Rural Livelihood Foundation (BRLF), which claims to be the first of its kind since 1947.

  • The BRLF was set up by the Union Cabinet in 2013 as an independent society under the Union Ministry of Rural Development to scale up civil society action in partnership with central and state governments.

What are the Findings of the Report?

  • Tribal Population:
    • India’s tribal communities form 8.6% of the country’s population according to the 2011 Census. But they are at the bottom of the country’s development pyramid even after 75 years of independence.
    • Central India is home to 80% of the tribal communities in the country.
    • Of the 257 Scheduled Tribe districts, 230 (90%) are either forested or hilly or dry. But they account for 80 % of India’s tribal population.
  • Tribals are most Deprived:
    • Be it sanitation, education, nutrition, access to drinking water and education, despite 70 years of independence, Adivasis are the most deprived.
  • Disturbances and Conflict in Tribal Regions:
    • Tribal areas are also areas that have faced a lot of disturbance and conflict. This is one of the reasons why many government welfare schemes and policies are unable to take off in these areas. Distress in the area affects both sides.
  • Pushed into Harshest Ecological Regions:
    • The report stated that indigenous communities of India have been pushed farther away from alluvial plains and fertile river basins into the harshest ecological regions of the country like hills, forests, and drylands.
  • Forest Conservation Act in 1980:
    • After the enactment of the Forest Conservation Act in 1980, the conflict came to be seen as between environmental protection and the needs of local Adivasi communities, driving a wedge between people and forests.
    • It was in the National Forest Policy of 1988 that domestic requirements of local people were explicitly recognised for the very first time.
      • The Policy emphasised safeguarding their customary rights and closely associating Adivasis in the protection of forests. But the movement towards a people-oriented perspective has not been matched by reality on the ground.
  • Suggestions:
    • It is important to understand the special characteristics of tribal communities to frame policies for them.
    • There are many tribal communities that prefer isolation and silence. They are shy and are not going to reach out to the outside world on their own. Policy makers and leaders of the country need to understand this trait and then work towards the welfare of Adivasis so that they connect with them in a better way.

UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ)

Prelims

Q. Under which Schedule of the Constitution of India can the transfer of tribal land to private parties for mining be declared null and void? (2019)

(a) Third Schedule
(b) Fifth Schedule
(c) Ninth Schedule
(d) Twelfth Schedule

Ans: (b)

Exp:

  • Grant of mineral concessions in Scheduled Areas is guided by the provisions contained in Article 244 along with Fifth and Sixth Schedules to the Constitution relating to administration of the Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas and the provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 and the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 or any other relevant statutory acts protecting the interests of tribals.
  • Under the Fifth Schedule, the Governor may by public notification, direct that any particular Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State shall or shall not apply to a Scheduled Area or any part thereof in the State.
  • Thus, under Fifth Schedule, transfer of tribal land to private parties for mining can be declared null and void. Therefore, option (b) is the correct answer.

Mains

Q. How do you explain the statistics that show that the sex ratio in Tribes in India is more favourable to women than the sex ratio among Scheduled Castes? (2015)

Source: DTE

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