Important Facts For Prelims
- 23 Jul 2022
- 7 min read
Why in News?
Recently, the Central Government is considering granting Tribal status to the Hatti Community of the Tans-Giri region of Himachal Pradesh’s Sirmaur district.
Who are the Hattis?
- The Hattis are a close-knit community that got their name from their tradition of selling homegrown vegetables, crops, meat, and wool, etc. at small markets called ‘haat’ in towns.
- Hatti men traditionally don a distinctive white headgear on ceremonial occasions.
- The Hatti homeland straddles the Himachal-Uttarakhand border in the basin of the Giri and Tons rivers, both tributaries of the Yamuna.
- The Tons marks the border between the two states.
- The Hattis who lives in the trans-Giri area in Himachal Pradesh and Jaunsar Bawar in Uttarakhand were once part of the royal estate of Sirmaur until Jaunsar Bawar’s separation in 1814.
- There are two Hatti clans, in Trans-Giri and Jaunsar Bawar, have similar traditions, and inter-marriages are common.
- However, a fairly rigid caste system operates in the community — the Bhat and Khash are upper castes, and the Badhois are below them, and inter-caste marriages have traditionally been discouraged.
- The Hattis are governed by a traditional council called ‘khumbli’ which, like the ‘khaps’ of Haryana, decides community matters.
- The Khumbli’s power has remained unchallenged despite the establishment of the Panchayati raj system.
- They have sizeable presence in about nine Assembly seats in the Sirmaur and Shimla regions.
- According to the 2011 Census of India, the total tribal population of Himachal Pradesh is 3,92,126, which is 5.7% of the total population of the state.
What are their Demands?
- Tribal Status:
- They are demanding Schedule Tribe status since 1967 when tribal status was accorded to people living in Jaunsar Bawar in Uttarakhand, which shares a border with the Sirmaur district.
- Due to topographical disadvantages, the Hattis living in the Kamrau, Sangrah, and Shilliai areas of Himachal Pradesh have lagged behind in both education and employment.
What is the Status of Scheduled Tribes in India?
- As per Census-1931, Schedule tribes are termed as "backward tribes” living in the "Excluded" and "Partially Excluded" areas. The Government of India Act of 1935 called for the first time for representatives of "backward tribes" in provincial assemblies.
- The Constitution does not define the criteria for recognition of Scheduled Tribes and hence the definition contained in 1931 Census was used in the initial years after independence.
- However, Article 366(25) of the Constitution only provides process to define Scheduled Tribes: “Scheduled Tribes means such tribes or tribal communities or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of this Constitution.”
- 342(1): The President may with respect to any State or Union Territory, and where it is a State, after consultation with the Governor, by a public notification, specify the tribes or tribal communities or part of or groups within tribes or tribal communities as Scheduled Tribe in relation to that State or Union Territory.
- There are over 705 tribes which have been notified. The largest number of tribal communities are found in Odisha.
- The Fifth Schedule of the Constitution lays out provision for Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in states other than Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
- The Sixth Schedule deals with the administration of the tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
- Legal Provisions:
- Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 against Untouchability.
- Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989
- Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996
- Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006
- Related Initiatives:
- Related Committees:
- Xaxa Committee (2013)
- Bhuria Commission (2002-2004)
- Lokur Committee (1965)
UPSC Civil Services Examination Previous Year Question (PYQ)
Q With reference to ‘Stand Up India Scheme’, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2016)
- Its purpose is to promote entrepreneurship among SC/ST and women entrepreneurs.
- It provides for refinance through SIDBI.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
- Stand Up India Scheme was launched on 5th April 2016. It seeks to promote entrepreneurship among Scheduled Caste/Schedule Tribe and Women. Hence, statement 1 is correct.
- The Scheme is expected to benefit a large number of such entrepreneurs, as it is intended to facilitate at least two such projects per bank branch (Scheduled Commercial Bank) on an average one for each category of entrepreneur.
- Key Features:
- Composite loan between `10 lakh and upto `100 lakh, inclusive of working capital component for setting up any new enterprise.
- Debit Card (RuPay) for drawal of working capital.
- Credit history of the borrower to be developed.
- Refinance window through Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) with an initial amount of `10, 000 crore. Hence, statement 2 is correct.
- Creation of a corpus of `5,000 crore for credit guarantee through National Credit Guarantee Trustee Company (NCGTC).
- Handholding support for borrowers with comprehensive support for pre-loan training needs, facilitating loan, factoring, marketing, etc.
- Web Portal for online registration and support services. Therefore, option (c) is the correct answer.