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Flood Resistant Paddy: Assam

  • 13 Jul 2020
  • 2 min read

Why in News

Recently, farmers from Golaghat district in Assam have cultivated new flood resistant paddy varieties to shift from the traditional ones.

  • The varieties called Ranjit Sub1, Swarna Sub1 and Bahadur Sub1 have been used by about 60% farmers of the West Brahmaputra area.

Key Points

  • Farmers in flood-prone areas of Assam have been harvesting the water-resistant Swarna Sub1, developed by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the Manila-based International Rice Research Institute, since 2009.
  • But the switchover from traditional varieties of paddy has been slow.
    • The flood-resistant varieties including Ranjit Sub-1 were reintroduced in 2018.
  • Significance:
    • Resist Submergence: The new rice varieties can resist submergence for up to two weeks, and significantly do not get damaged by the heavy flood.
      • However, comparison with the traditional varieties is difficult as they get damaged in the flood.
    • Greater Yield: Enriched with the ‘submergence’ (sub in short) gene, the varieties can yield up to five tonnes per hectare on an average.
    • Reduction in Crop Loss: Some 1,500 farmers cultivate on about 950 hectares in crop-yielding areas which have been impacted by the regular flood. Therefore, rice varieties can reduce flood-caused crop loss substantially.
    • Regeneration: These varieties can get regenerated again in case damaged by the flood, hence ensure maximum productivity.


  • It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
  • About one-fourth of the total cropped area in India is under rice cultivation.
  • Leading Producer States: West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab.
  • High Yielding States: Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, West Bengal and Kerala.
  • In West Bengal, farmers grow three crops of rice called ‘aus’, ‘aman’ and ‘boro’.
  • India contributes 21.6% of rice production in the world and ranks second after China.

Source: TH

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