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Indian Economy

Economic Survey 2019-20: Social Infrastructure, Employment and Human Development

  • 01 Feb 2020
  • 2 min read
  • Employment and Income
    • Largest proportion of Indian population depends directly or indirectly on agriculture for employment opportunities as compared to any other sector.
    • The share of regular wage/salaried employees has increased by 5 percentage points from 18% in 2011-12 to 23% in 2017-18.
    • Gender disparity in India’s labour market widened due to decline in female labour force participation, especially in rural areas.
  • Government Expenditure on Social Services
    • The expenditure on social services (health, education and others) by the Centre and States as a proportion of GDP increased from 6.2% in 2014-15 to 7.7% in 2019-20.
    • Access to health services inter-alia through Ayushman Bharat and Mission Indradhanush across the country has improved and a 10 Year Rural Sanitation Strategy (2019-2029) launched to focus on sustaining the sanitation behavior change and increasing access to solid and liquid waste management.
  • Burning of agricultural residues, leading to rise in pollutant levels and deterioration of air quality, is still a major concern, though the total number of burning events recorded reduced due to various efforts taken.
  • All urban areas of 35 States/UTs have become Open Defecation Free (ODF) and percentage of waste processing rose from around 18% to 60%.
  • The Survey emphasizes on sustainability of food security operations by:
    • Addressing the burgeoning food subsidy bill.
    • Revisiting the rates and coverage under National Food Security Act (NFSA).
  • Privatization of Education
    • The Survey proposes privatization of education at all levels as a policy initiative to fast-track entrepreneurship and consequently wealth creation.
    • It links literacy levels to start-up activity and cites the example of the eastern parts of the country, which have the lowest literacy rate of about 59.6% and also the lowest rate of new firms being set up.
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