China’s Global Security Initiative
- 29 Apr 2022
- 6 min read
For Prelims: Global Security Initiative, Quad Grouping, AUKUS Grouping, Indo-Pacific strategy
For Mains: New Cold War, Groupings & Agreements Involving India and/or Affecting India's Interests, Effect of Policies & Politics of Countries on India's Interests
Why in News?
Recently, a new Global Security Initiative (GSI) was put forward by Chinese President. The GSI looks to counter the US Indo-Pacific strategy and the Quad (India, US, Australia, Japan grouping).
- However, China did not provide much clarity or details about the proposed global security initiative.
What is GSI, as Envisaged by China?
- Principle of Indivisible Security: With growing threats posed by unilateralism, hegemony and power politics, and increasing deficits in peace, security, trust and governance, mankind is facing more and more intractable problems and security threats.
- Thus, China held that the Global security initiative is envisaged to uphold the principle of "indivisible security”.
- The principle of "indivisible security" means that no country can strengthen its own security at the expense of others.
- Asian Security Model: GSI calls for a "common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable" security and building an Asian security model of mutual respect, openness and integration”.
- Opposing Sanctions: This would oppose the use of unilateral sanctions and long-arm jurisdiction, appearing to refer to Western sanctions.
- Tackling New Cold War: Indo-Pacific’ strategy to divide the region and create a ‘new Cold War’, and the use of military alliances to put together an ‘Asian version of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
- According China, the Quad grouping was equivalent to the “Five Eyes” intelligence alliance involving Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the U.S. and U.K. and the AUKUS pact, as a key element in what he called U.S. plans to build an “Asian NATO”.
What are Reactions of Quad Members?
- Quad is not a Military Alliance: The members of the Quad have rejected the notion that it is an Asian NATO or a military alliance, and pointed to its broad-based cooperation, including on vaccines and technology.
- Double Standards of China: Chinese criticism of unilateralism, hegemony and double standards is usually aimed at the US.
- Impact of Russia-Ukraine War: China's new advances in the Pacific could be related to the stagnation of the Belt and Road Initiative, due to the Ukraine war.
What are Events Signaling a New Cold War?
- China’s Development: For several decades, China’s aggressive development under the relatively enlightened authoritarianism of Deng Xiaoping and his successors was seen positively in the United States.
- However, under Xi Jinping (President), China has evolved from a soft to a hard authoritarianism.
- There is now a president-for-life with a budding personality cult.
- US’ Counter: In order to contain rising China’s assertiveness, the US under its ‘pivot to Asia policy’ Has launched a Quad initiative & Indo pacific narrative.
- Most recently, the US proposed to expand G7 to G-11 without including China in it.
- China’s Stance on South China Sea: China’s actions in the South China Sea, first by land reclamation and then constructing artificial islands for extending extra-territorial claim, has seen sharp criticism from the US and its allies.
- Challenging Economic Hegemony: China has come out with alternative governance mechanisms to the U.S.-dominated International Monetary Fund, World Bank and World Trade Organization with its all-encompassing Belt and Road Initiative and institutions like Asia infrastructure investment bank, Contingency Reserve Agreement (CRA) of New Development Bank.
What Should be Role of India?
- India is a rising global power and citing its importance both the US and China sought to attract India in its camp. Foreign policy experts in the US argue India Is a Natural US Ally in the New Cold War.
- On the other hand, Chinese’s Ambassador in India has suggested writing “together a new chapter” with “a shared future for mankind”. In this context:
- India can promote new multilateralism under the aegis of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam- which relies on restructuring both the economic order and societal behavior for equitable sustainable development.
- India must take up intensified diplomacy with global powers so that Asian Century can be defined in terms of peaceful co-existence and global interest.
- Apart from it, India should acknowledge that national security now relies on technological superiority in Artificial Intelligence (AI), cyber and space, and not expensive capital equipment.
- Thus, India should become self-sufficient in the domain of critical technologies.