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Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana
- 06 Jun 2022
- 5 min read
For Prelims: Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban
For Mains: Welfare Schemes, Government Policies and Interventions
Why in News?
The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G) has a completion rate of 67.72%, whereas the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban (PMAY-U) scheme that started a year ahead is lagging behind with a 50% completion rate.
What are the Reasons for Delay in Both the Schemes?
- The government officials blame the Covid-19 Pandemic for the slowdown in the PMAY-U.
- The completion rate for houses sanctioned before the Covid-19 pandemic stood around 80%.
- Poor Implementation by the states:
- Six States account for 70% of the target units — West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
- Out of them only two States — Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal — have a completion rate above the national average.
- Bihar has one of the lowest completion rates.
- Lack of clear titles and Documents:
- In urban areas, issues such as a lack of clear titles and other land documents tend to crop up. This further slowed down the pace.
- The same is true for rural areas as well.
- Centre’s withholding funds in two States:
- In West Bengal, there was an allegation that the current state govt was repackaging the scheme as the Bangla Awas Yojana.
- Funds for Chhattisgarh were withheld because the State failed to provide its share of contribution for the scheme.
- The Centre pays 60% and the States have to bear 40% of the cost.
What is PMAY-G Scheme?
- Launch: To achieve the objective of “Housing for All” by 2022, the erstwhile rural housing scheme Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) was restructured to Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G) w.e.f 1st April, 2016.
- Ministry Involved: Ministry of Rural development.
- Aim: To provide a pucca house with basic amenities to all rural families, who are homeless or living in kutcha or dilapidated houses by the end of March 2022.
- To help rural people Below the Poverty Line (BPL) in construction of dwelling units and upgradation of existing unserviceable kutcha houses by providing assistance in the form of a full grant.
- Beneficiaries: People belonging to SCs/STs, freed bonded labourers and non-SC/ST categories, widows or next-of-kin of defence personnel killed in action, ex servicemen and retired members of the paramilitary forces, disabled persons and minorities.
- Selection of Beneficiaries: Through a three stage validation - Socio Economic Caste Census 2011, Gram Sabha, and geo-tagging.
- Cost Sharing: The cost of unit assistance is shared between Central and State Governments in the ratio 60:40 in plain areas and 90:10 for North Eastern and hilly states.
- It was initiated with a target of completing 2.7 crore houses.
- So far, according to the database maintained by the Union Rural Development Ministry, 1.8 crore houses have been constructed.
- This is 67.72% of the target.
What is PMAY-U Scheme?
- 25th June 2015, intends to provide housing for all in urban areas by year 2022.
- Implemented by:
- Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
- Addresses Urban housing shortage among the Urban Poor including the Slum Dwellers by ensuring a pucca house to eligible urban poor.
- The Mission covers the entire urban area consisting of Statutory Towns, Notified Planning Areas, Development Authorities, Special Area Development Authorities, Industrial Development Authorities or any such authority under State legislation which is entrusted with the functions of urban planning & regulations.
- All houses under PMAY(U) have basic amenities like toilet, water supply, electricity and kitchen.
- The Mission promotes women empowerment by providing the ownership of houses in the name of female members or in joint name.
- Preference is also given to differently abled persons, senior citizens, SCs, STs, OBCs, Minority, single women, transgender and other weaker & vulnerable sections of the society.
- It was initiated with a target of constructing 1.2 crore homes.
- According to the latest numbers from the Union Urban Development Ministry, only 60 lakh units have been completed to date.