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Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report

  • 13 Nov 2019
  • 3 min read

Why in News

To mark the occasion of the World Pneumonia Day on November 12, the International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC) released the 10th Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report. The report describes progress in fighting pneumonia and diarrhoea in countries with the highest absolute number of deaths.

Key Highlights

  • Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report is issued annually.
  • Prevalence: The report has found that globally, pneumonia and diarrhoea led to nearly one of every four deaths in children under five years of age (in 2017).
  • Parameters: The report analyses how effectively countries are delivering 10 key interventions, including breastfeeding, vaccination, access to care, use of antibiotics, ORS, and zinc supplementation.
    • These measures are proven to help prevent deaths due to these illnesses and could help achieve the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal-3 target of reducing under-five mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births by 2030.
    • According to UNICEF, in India (2018) the
      • Under 5 Mortality Rate is 39 deaths per 1000 live births.
      • Infant Mortality Rate (under one year of age) is 32 deaths per 1000 live births.
      • Neonatal Mortality Rate (during the first 28 days of life) is 24 deaths per 1000 live births.
  • India’s Status: Rollout of rotavirus vaccines to prevent rotavirus diarrhoea (in 2016), and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for treating pneumonia (in 2017) has helped India to improve its scores.
    • India’s exclusive breastfeeding rate (at 55%) is among the highest of the 23 countries. However, the proportion of children receiving important treatments, as with many other countries, remains below targets.
    • In India, half of the children with diarrhoea receive ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution) and 20% receive zinc supplementation that helps to protect against, prevent and treat pneumonia and diarrhoea.

  • Other Reports Findings: Reports from organizations like Save the Children and UNICEF have marked that, in 2017, the highest risk factors for child pneumonia death in India were:
    • 53% caused by child wasting,
    • 27% by outdoor air pollution, and
    • 22% caused by indoor air pollution from solid fuels.

Way Forward

The report concludes that the global community must increase investment and support other countries in developing smart and sustainable strategies that can close the gaps and accelerate progress.

Source: TH

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