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Kyasanur Forest Disease

  • 22 May 2021
  • 3 min read

Why in News

A new point-of-care test has been found to be highly sensitive in the rapid diagnosis of Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD).

  • This disease is also known as monkey fever.

Key Points

  • Point-of-care Test:
    • About:
      • It is developed by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)-National Institute of Virology.
      • It includes a battery-operated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analyser, which is a portable, lightweight and universal cartridge-based sample pre-treatment kit and nucleic acid extraction device that aid in sample processing at the point of care.
    • Benefits:
      • It would be beneficial for the diagnosis of KFD as the outbreaks mainly happen in remote areas, where there is lack of well-equipped sample handling and laboratory testing facilities.
      • It would be useful in quick patient management and controlling further spread of the virus.
  • Kyasanur Forest Disease:
    • About:
      • It is caused by Kyasanur Forest disease Virus (KFDV), which primarily affects humans and monkeys.
      • It was first identified in 1957 in a sick monkey from the Kyasanur Forest in Karnataka. Since then, between 400-500 human cases per year have been reported.
      • Eventually, KFD emerged as a grave public health problem spreading through the entire Western Ghats.
    • Transmission:
      • In nature, the virus is maintained mainly in hard ticks (Haemaphysalis spinigera), monkeys, rodents and birds.
      • To humans, it may occur after a tick bite or contact with an infected animal (a sick or recently dead monkey).
    • Symptoms:
      • Characterised by chills, frontal headache, body ache, and high fever for five to 12 days with a case fatality rate of 3 to 5%.
    • Diagnosis:
    • Treatment and Prevention:
      • There is no specific treatment for monkey fever.
      • A vaccine (Formalin inactivated KFDV vaccine) does exist for KFD and is used in endemic areas of India.
        • However, it is found that vaccines are not effective once the person is infected with fever.

Source: IE

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